ultra density optical disc full report
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.doc   Ultra Density Optical Disc.doc (Size: 1.31 MB / Downloads: 117)


INTRODUCTION

UDO has been designed specifically to provide compliant and secure

archival storage for valuable business information such as high

volume emails and document images, customer records, audio or video

files, legal or financial information and design documentation. UDO

continues to deliver all the strengths of optical storage such as

data authenticity and longevity, but with much higher capacity and

greatly reduced costs.
UDO is available in Rewritable and Write Once (True Write Once and

Compliant Write Once) media formats. The use of Write Once media is

often called for by data storage regulations because it provides an

unalterable, non-erasable format that facilitates clear data audit

trails and the establishment of record authenticity.
UDO Rewritable media is typically used in archive environments

where data needs to be deleted or media capacity re-used.

UDO customers include investment banks, on-line trading companies,

multinational insurance companies, government institutions,

healthcare delivery organizations, television and radio

broadcasters, retail companies and engineering firms.
2.What is an Ultra density optical disc?
Ultra Density Optical technology, commonly referred to as UDO, is

the ideal successor to Magneto Optical (MO) archival storage

because it adheres to the 5.25" ISO standard form factor. UDO

offers customers more than three times the capacity of MO, with 33%

faster file access, 8 MB/sec read transfer rates and a lower longer

term cost of ownership; roughly 84% per GB less than MO. UDO will

deliver the highest level of data integrity and trustworthiness

with phase change write once recording and is considered the new 30

GB standard for professional optical storage; ideal for customers

who must meet international, commercial and governmental archival

regulations.
Phase Change Technology utilizes the heat from a blue laser to

write data on the recording surface of optical media. The laser

records data marks by altering the reflective quality of the

recording surface. This is done by changing the physical state of

the media's recording layer from a crystalline to an amorphous

state, which produces bright to dark marks on the media.
The laser, set at a lower intensity, is then used to read the

media. UDO Write Once optical technology prevents data from being

overwritten or altered. UDO uses a non-contact recording to provide

robust and reliable performance and is insensitive to exposure to

magnetic fields.
.
3.DIFFERENT FORMATS
UDO is available in Rewritable and Write Once (True Write Once and

Compliant Write Once) media formats. The use of Write Once media is

often called for by data storage regulations because it provides an

unalterable, non-erasable format that facilitates clear data audit

trails and the establishment of record authenticity. UDO Rewritable

media is typically used in archive environments where data needs to

be deleted or media capacity re-used.
3.1 Rewritable Media

UDO Rewritable media uses a specially formulated Phase Change

recording surface that allows recorded data to be deleted and

modified. In practice, UDO Rewritable media operates like a

standard magnetic disk. Files can be written, erased and rewritten,

dynamically reallocating media capacity. Rewritable UDO media is

typically used in archive applications where the stability and

longevity of optical media is important, but the archive records

change on a relatively
frequent or discretionary basis.
In these environments the archive may be more transient and used

to off-load static data from the primary disk storage with the

added benefit of being able to reuse the media capacity in the

future. UDO Rewritable media is ideal for small office and

departmental applications or in larger unstructured archives that

are not subject to specific regulatory or corporate standards.
3.2 True Write Once Media

UDO True Write once media uses a totally different Phase Change

recording surface than the Rewritable media. Unlike Rewritable

media, the Write Once recording surface cannot be erased or

altered, giving True Write Once media the highest possible level of

physical record authenticity. This level of data integrity cannot

be matched by magnetic disk or tape technologies using Write Once

emulation. True Write Once optical media has a very long and

successful history with a wide range of applications across many

industries.
Its greatest strengths are media longevity to reduce the cost and

frequency of migration, and data authenticity that meets strict

legal standards. Common uses of True Write Once media include

medical, financial, industrial and cultural applications that have

long or indefinite record retention periods with a need for

unquestioned record authenticity.


3.3 Compliant Write Once Media

UDO Compliant Write once media has the same operational properties

as True Write Once media with one important difference. Through the

use of a specially designed shred operation, individual records

written to Compliant Write Once media can be destroyed once their

retention period expires.
The shred function is controlled at an application level and

operates only on Compliant Write Once media. It is a fully verified

process and unlike the erase pass on magnetic disks, the shred

operation on Phase Change media leaves no residual traces of

previously written data. While it is possible to shred data on

magnetic disks through the use of specialized tools that repeatedly

overwrite a patterned sequence, destroying individual records on

magnetic tape is not possible without totally rewriting the media.

Shredding data on Compliant Write Once media is highly efficient

and provides the highest possible standard for absolute data

destruction.
The driving requirement behind the use of Compliant Write Once is

risk management and compliance. Industry regulations and corporate

policies often mandate specific record retention periods for

archive data. Some regulations require that records be physically

destroyed when the retention period expires and in other instances

the destruction of the data is at the discretion of the

organization or by customer request. In all cases, the use of UDO

Compliant media provides Write Once data authenticity while

ensuring total data destruction.
The proper disposition of records can dramatically reduce

political and financial liability as organizations seek to avoid

situations where legal discovery proceedings uncover record should

have been destroyed.
The attributes of Write Once authenticity and absolute data

destruction make UDO Compliant Write Once media ideal for ILM

(Information Lifecycle Management) environments, email archiving

applications and the controlled storage of regulated records.
3.3(a).Compliant Write Once Media Operational Overview
Physical Media Identification
UDO Write Once Media is available in two different formats: True

Write Once and Compliant Write Once. Since both of these media

formats offer similar Write Once media attributes, they are housed

in the same blue Write Once antistatic media cartridge. While the

cartridge color is the same, the Compliant Write Once media has a

distinctive red text field printed on the shutter
At an operational level, the UDO drive identifies the three UDO

media types through the use of a SDI (Specific Disk Information)

field registered on the media header during the manufacturing

process. The SDI is present in a specific location on the media and

cannot be altered or modified. In addition to containing a unique

disk serial number, the name of the manufacturer and additional

drive and media information, it also includes a code that

identifies the media as Rewritable, True Write Once or Compliant

Write Once. A UDO drive can read and write data on all three media

types, but since the physical recording surfaces differ, the drive

needs to know which media is loaded so a drive calibration can be

performed for the appropriate media characteristics.
The SDI number is automatically read by the UDO drive when a piece

of media is loaded, and if identified as Compliant Write Once

media, the SDI authorizes the drive firmware to perform the shred

operation used to destroy data sectors
Media Sector Format Compliant


Write Once media uses the same 8KB sector size as the other two UDO

media types. Each 8KB sector is divided into three primary fields:

a VAP (Verify and Protect) field, the actual data field and a field

containing ECC (Error Correction Code) information. Figure

2provides a schematic diagram detailing the full structure of the

8KB sector. Structure of 8KB Media Sector The VAP field is created

when data is written to media sectors on True Write Once and

Compliant Write Once media. It is a standard identifier to verify

that the sector in question is a Write Once sector.
This field is present primarily for efficiency. The presence of

the VAP field tells the application that there is no need to

perform a Blank Check pass on the sector in question. The VAP

field is very small, using less than one tenth of one percent of

the 8KB sector. The data field contains the actual file data

written by the application or user and occupies about 90% of the

total sector size. This is followed by the ECC field, which makes

up the remaining 10% (approximately) of the sector. The ECC file

contains coded parity information about the data in the sector that

allows the drive to read the data field even if the media surface

is dirty or has been damaged.
Data Shred Command Operation and Application Control On Compliant

Write Once media, the data field within a media sector can be

destroyed by means of a unique data shred command executed through

the SCSI interface. the drive to quickly recognize the sector as

shredded. If all fields within the sector were destroyed, the drive

could confuse the sector(s) as unwritten or damaged causing

unnecessary reallocation operations that would degrade performance.
Data Shred Command Operation and Application Control
On Compliant Write Once media, the data field within a media sector

can be destroyed by means of a unique data shred command executed

through the SCSI interface. However, given the sensitive nature of

data destruction, shred operations are normally only initiated at

an application level where access and security can be closely

managed. When the shred command is executed against a specific

sector or range of sectors, only the data field within each 8KB

sector is destroyed. The VAP and ECC fields remain intact. These

fields are left in place to allow the drive to quickly recognize

the sector as shredded. If all fields within the sector were

destroyed, the drive could confuse the sector(s) as unwritten or

damaged causing unnecessary reallocation operations that would

degrade performance.
Data Destruction on 8KB Media Sector It is important to note that

while the associated ECC information for a destroyed data field is

left behind, it would be mathematically impossible to reconstruct

the entire data field from the remaining coded information.

Physical Destruction and Verification Process
UDO media employs a Phase Change recording process to read and

write data on the three different media types. A high-density blue

laser heats the recording surface changing the molecular structure

between crystalline and amorphous states depending on the function

being performed and the media type in question. With Rewritable

media data, sectors can be raised and rewritten. True Write Once

media only permits write and read operations since it s not

possible for the laser, regardless of the temperature, to alter the

data once it has been written.
Like True Write Once media, Compliant Write Once media does not

allow the deletion & rewriting of data, but has a special shred

command to destroy data fields. The shred command that operates on

Compliant Write Once media uses a specific laser intensity that

totally destroys the data files on targeted sectors. Data points

written using phase Change technology can exist in only one state

at a time (amorphous or crystalline) once destroyed the data cannot

be retrieved. When shredded, the physical and chemical ace Change

process begins at the perimeter of the data points and re-

crystallizes from the outside in. As a result, no residual traces

of data are left behind even when factoring in track deviation and

variance in laser intensity tolerances from one drive to another.
Destruction process on Compliant Write Once media is very different

than the erase pass n a magnetic disk. Magnetic disk erase

operations leave physical traces of recorded data hat can be

recovered using special procedures. To avoid data recovery on

magnetic disks, multi-pass erase and overwrite operation can be

employed, rewriting a specific pattern as any as ten times over the

same sector to ensure that data cannot be recovered. This operation

can be very time consuming if there are large numbers of documents

to be destroyed and if this technique is not used, the documents

may still be resent on the disk creating a potential liability risk

for business or other organizational processes.
UDO Compliant Write once media uses a secure two-pass shred

operation. The first pass is for the destruction of the data and

the second pass is to verify that the operation as successfully

completed.
Shredding of Reallocated Sectors
Sector reallocation on UDO media uses a very similar technique as

is employed with risks. If a defective media sector was identified

during a write operation it would be automatically reallocated from

the original sector to a secondary defect list. When a shred

operation is executed against a sector with reallocation, both the

original and reallocated sectors are shredded in order to ensure

that all data related to the targeted sector is physically

destroyed.

Verify and Scan Operations
Since Compliant Write Once media only allows data to be written

once to any given sector, the media capacity from shredded sectors

cannot be recaptured. Consequently, it is necessary for both the

drive and higher level applications to easily distinguish shredded

sectors from blank sectors when assessing sector availability and

overall media capacity.
When a sector is shredded it retains a status that is clearly

identifiable at an application level. If the application issues a

standard Verify for Written SCSI operation against a shredded

sector, the drive returns a shredded status to inform the host

that the sector is not blank. If the application issues a Verify

for Blank operation against a shredded sector, the drive returns a

Not Blank status so that inappropriate write operations cannot be

performed. Then trying to assess the available media capacity, a

Medium Scan operation can be executed. This command identifies

shredded sectors as written, allowing the proper available media

capacity to be determined.
3.3(b) Compliant Write Once Media Summery
In the past, organizations focused very little on the disposition

of aging data, but changes in technology, regulations and corporate

risk management have dramatically altered the archive landscape.

There is a growing imperative to better manage information assets

in line with business priorities. Sometimes referred to as ILM

(Information Lifecycle Management) /DLM (Data Lifecycle

Management), the intelligent and articulate control of data is

becoming essential to achieving fundamental business objectives.

The envelopment of Compliant Write Once media was a very direct

response to these evolving organizational and technical

requirements.
The functionality and physical attributes of the Compliant Write

Once technology provides a unique combination of media longevity,

record authenticity and assured data destruction that cannot be

matched by magnetic disks or taps. These technical capabilities

make compliant write once valuable tool in addressing industry

regulations and corporate policies. As part of a trio of UDO media

formats that also includes Rewritable and True Write Once,

Compliant Write Once media provides organizations with the

flexibility to match their business needs with the most appropriate

archival storage technology.
4. UDO Media Technical Overview
Write Once Media is available in two different formats: True Write

Once and Compliant Write Once. Since both of these media formats

offer similar Write Once media attributes, they are housed in the

same blue Write Once antistatic media cartridge. While the

cartridge color is the same, the Compliant Write Once media has a

distinctive red text field printed on the shutter. At an

operational level, the UDO drive identifies the three UDO media

types through the use of a SDI (Specific Disk Information) field

registered on the media header during the manufacturing process.

The SDI is present in a specific location on the media and cannot

be altered or modified.
In addition to containing a unique disk serial number, the name of

the manufacturer and additional drive and media information, it

also includes a code that identifies the media as Rewritable, True

Write Once or Compliant Write Once. A UDO drive can read and write

data on all three media types, but since the physical recording

surfaces differ, the drive needs to know which media is loaded so a

drive calibration can be performed for the appropriate media

characteristics.
The SDI number is automatically read by the UDO drive when a piece

of media is loaded, and if identified as Compliant Write Once

media, the SDI authorizes the drive firmware to perform the shred

operation used to destroy data sectors. The combination of a media

based SDI and drive based firmware controls provides a highly

secure architecture that ensures the proper and efficient operation

of all three media types.


Specifications of the "5.25 inch UDO Format"
5.25-inch UDO Format 5.25-inch MO
system (9.1GB)*under development
Rewritable Write-Once
Disk Diameter 130mm 130mm 130mm
DiskThickness 2.4mm 2.4mm 2.4mm
Cartridge Size Same as ISO 130mm (135 x 153 x 11 mm) Same as ISO

130mm (135 x 153 x 11 mm) ISO 130mm
(135 x 153 x 11 mm)
Number of physical tracks 96,964 96,964 49,728
Sector size 8KB 8KB 4KB
Number of sectors 2,504,407 2,504,407 1,118,880
Data area 29.0-61.0mm 29.0-61.0mm 29.7-62.5mm
Objective lens (NA) 0.85 0.85 0.575
Recording layer Phase change Phase change Magneto Optical
Recording format Land & Groove Land & Groove Land &

Groove
Recording side both sides both sides both sides
Track Pitch 0.33um 0.33um 0.65um
Minimum bit length 0.13um 0.13um 0.3um
Recording 15.0 Gb/inch2 15.0 Gb/inch2 3.3 Gb/inch2
Transfer rate 4-8MB/sec 4-8MB/sec 3-6MB/sec
Media Capacity 30GB (Double Sided)
Sector Size 8KB
Cartridge Size 5.25 inch
Recording Layer Phase Change
Media Life 50+ years
Rewrite Cycles 10,000 (Rewritable media)
Certification ISO/IEC 17345, ECMA-350
UDO Media Specifications Summary

5. How does UDO works ?

5.1 UDO Recording Technology
5.1(a). UDO PHASE CHANGE MEDIA DESIGN CRITERIA
toDisc stores digitally encoded video, audio and other data

information in pits-spiral grooves that run from the centre of the

disc to the end of the disc. A laser reads the other side of these

pits-the bumps-to play the movie or program that stored in DVD. The

more data that is containing on a disc, the smaller are more

closely packed the pits must be. The smaller pits the more precise

the reading laser must be unlike current DVDs, which use a red

laser to read and write data. UDO uses a blue laser which has

shorter wave length (405nm) than a red laser (650nm)
The primary market for UDO will be writing once applications. In

order to fulfill the increasing number of legislative requirements

to provide an unalterable audit trail, the need for true write once

media is becoming more and more important. Unlike MO media which is

inherently rewritable (with write once functionality being achieved

through software), phase change coatings can be designed to be

truly write once. However, because some applications require

rewritability, the UDO drives are multifunctional, and both UDO

write once and UDO rewritable media have been developed. The two

types of media have slightly different formats (minor differences

in the formatted information and groove geometry) but very

different phase change alloy coatings, each optimized according

their application: archival true write once or high scalability

rewritable. In the following sections, we shall discuss some of the

design considerations leading to the selection of the phase change

materials and stack development for each type of UDO media and

illustrate the resulting performance.
5.1(b). UDO REWRITABLE MEDIA
UDO rewritable is based on fast growth phase change, the active

layer being a Sb-Te-Ge alloy close to the Sb69Te31 eutectic

composition. UDO rewritable is a high density, fast recording media

combined with high scalability, and high resistance to cross erase.

Figures show typical results for the UDO power margin, overwrite

performance and cross erase, with in excess of 20,000 direct

overwrite cycles being achieved. Note that BERC is a measure of

byte error rate, with results less than 30 being acceptable to the

drive.

Figure: UDO Rewritable Write Power Margin plots of BERC (a measure

of BER within a sector, results below 30 are acceptable to the

drive) as a function of write power, for land and groove recording

at inner and outer diameter velocity

.
6. UDO ADVANTAGES
¢ Record high definition television (HDTV) without any

quality loss.
¢ Instantly skip to any spot on the disc.
¢ Record one program while watching another on the disc with

out any disturbance.
¢ Automatically searches for an empty space on the disc to

avoid recording over a program.
¢ Complies with industry regulations for record authenticity
¢ Provides unmatched media longevity
¢ Supports scalable, high capacity configurations
¢ Delivers rapid access to archived data
¢ Especially in Compliant Write Once media , there is a

specially designed shred operation individual records written to

Compliant Write Once media can be destroyed on
7. UDO Development
The UDO disc founder, as the consortium is called, includes some of

the biggest names in consumer electronics media. The UDO technology

roadmap calls for future generations of 60GB and 120GB media

capacities with drive backward read compatibility to maximize

investment protection and ensure long-term data access. UDO

technology is available in a UDO Desktop Drive configuration for

small office and departmental applications and in G-Series

automated libraries for high capacity environments that require

fast access to archived data.
12.1 THE UDO MEDIA FOUNDERS
1. Sony Corporation
2. Plasmon (Mitsubishi Chemical)
Is it possible to have 500GB?
Now in market it is available 30GB capacity UDO disc. But it is now

developing up to 120GB. It will be soon available in the market. It

is possible to have 500GB UDO disc by using smaller wave length

lights (like UV rays) we can increase the capacity
8. UDO features
The core technology for UDO is essentially similar to Blue-ray

although there are a number of key differences. The main features

of UDO are:
(a) Authenticity and Trustworthiness
UDO provides absolute data authenticity for regulatory compliance

or for any application where archived information must remain 100%

unchanged. DO uses a patented Phase Change recording process that

permanently alters the molecular structure of true Write Once

media, ensuring data integrity at the most fundamental level. UDO

is also available with Rewritable media for archive environments

where data needs to be deleted or media capacity reused. Unlike

true Write Once media, Rewritable media allows the Phase Change

recording process to be reversed. Enhanced error correction

algorithms and read ahead defect management complement UDOs Phase

Change recording process to guarantee unparalleled data integrity.
b) Long-term Data Retention
UDO has been designed to provide decades of dependable data

retention. A highly stable recording surface, precision engineered

protective coating and durable cartridge delivers media life in

excess of 50years, minimizing the frequency of data migration and

virtually eliminating media maintenance. The UDO drive design is

robust and reduces the potential for contamination, enabling them

to withstand the rigors of continuous, long-term use.
© High Capacity and Scalability
Rapidly growing archive data volumes demand solutions with high

initial capacity and flexibility to scale over time. Blue laser

technology gives 30GBUDO more than three times the capacity of

previous generation MO (Magneto Optical) and DVD technologies. The

removability of UDO cartridges, combined with the off-line media

management capabilities of optical storage libraries, means

scalability is essentially unlimited. Rarely used data can be

removed from a library, freeing up capacity yet remaining managed

and accessible.
(d) Rapid Information Access
Knowledge assets are useless if they cannot be accessed when

needed. UDO has fast 35-milli second random access capability,

facilitating timely retrieval of relevant data. An 8K sector size

optimizes read/write performance across a wide range of file sizes.

UDO realizes additional performance by operating at Constant

Angular Velocity (CAV). During reads and writes the medias pins

continuously at the highest possible rate. In rewritable

applications, UDO features a unique direct over write capability,

doubling rewrite speeds by eliminating the need for a dedicated

erase pass.
(e) Low Total Cost of Ownership
UDO has a highly competitive archival storage TCO.With attractively

priced 30GB media, the acquisition cost of a UDO library compares

favorably with much less reliable tape or DVD solutions and costs a

fraction of hard disk-based systems. UDO's ISO standard 5.25 inch

media cartridge permits the use of MO and UDO media in the same

library, eliminating the necessity for migration from 9.1 MO media.

Planned introductions of backward-compatible 60GBand 120GB UDO

drives guarantee investment protection and minimize future

migration expense.
UDO drives and media are designed for longevity and drives operate

only when a cartridge is inserted -keeping overall maintenance and

operating costs extremely low. Combined with its inherent

authenticity and trustworthiness over time, outstanding capacity

and scalability and excellent random access attributes, UDO's low

TCO makes it the ideal solution for professional archive

applications and a key element of a comprehensive information life

cycle strategy.
9. Application & Markets
UDO is the only storage technology that delivers the secure

authentication of true Write Once storage with the permanence that

ensures the lowest possible Total Cost of Ownership. These

attributes are fundamental to many industries for the archival

storage of corporate documents, emails, customer records and

transaction data. Industries that benefit from UDO technology

include:

UDO for the Financial market
The properties of UDO make it extremely well suited to meet the

archival storage demands of financial institutions. UDO provides

the authenticity of true Write Once technology, rapid access to

decades of records and the media longevity required for the long-

term retention of important customer and transaction records.

Ensuring data authenticity is critical to regulation compliance and

to avoid costly litigation. As a result, many financial regulations

that define media types typically call for the use of unalterable

or Write Once media; making UDO the clear choice for financial

record archives.
UDO for the Insurance Market

UDO provides very fast access to random files. Load time for UDO

media is a few seconds and seek times are a fraction of a second so

any file in a multiple terabytes optical library can be accessed in

less than 10 seconds. Because the access cycle for data stored in

automated libraries with UDO media takes only a few seconds, UDO

library configurations operate extremely well in multi user, high

demand environments such as the insurance industry where there can

be hundreds of requests for archive data
UDO makes it possible for insurance companies to archive and

quickly access information that they may not have been able to in

the past. In this very competitive industry, the rapid data

availability provided by UDO can allow organizations to offer new

products and services and gain a competitive advantage.

UDO for the Healthcare market
Healthcare organizations demand high system capacities to meet the

enormous volume of medical images and records, while making sure

it's secure and cost effective. UDO meets these demands with high

media / system capacity and a low Total Cost of Ownership that is

unmatched by other storage media. The true Write Once nature of UDO

is ideally suited for medical applications since patient records

and medical images cannot be altered or lost. Since UDO uses non-

magnetic recording, data written to the media is not damaged by

exposure to magnetic fields, which can be a considerable risk where

powerful medical imaging equipment is in use. The convenience of

UDO's rugged, removable cartridge also gives hospitals the

flexibility to store large volumes of data within a library or to

easily remove older data to a vault for longer-term off-line

storage.
UDO for the Healthcare market
Healthcare organizations demand high system capacities to meet the

enormous volume of medical images and records, while making sure

it's secure and cost effective. UDO meets these demands with high

media / system capacity and a low Total Cost of Ownership that is

unmatched by other storage media. The true Write Once nature of UDO

is ideally suited for medical applications since patient records

and medical images cannot be altered or lost. Since UDO uses non-

magnetic recording, data written to the media is not damaged by

exposure to magnetic fields, which can be a considerable risk where

powerful medical imaging equipment is in use.

UDO for the Pharmaceutical market
While pharmaceutical research, development and filing application

records must be kept for decades, they are often infrequently

accessed. As a result, the archive media for these records must be

very cost effective, facilitate record authentication and provide

excellent longevity. The attributes of UDO match these requirements

extremely well. True Write Once technology affords the best

possible audit trail management to ensure data authenticity. Media

life in excess of 50 years acts to minimize data migration

frequency, it requires virtually zero media maintenance and minimal

operating costs. Pharmaceutical companies can write their records

onto stable UDO media and be certain the data is available years

later without the additional expense .

UDO for Legal environments
Data integrity and authenticity, a main concern for record

admissibility, is best achieved by Write Once technology, because

it provides a secure, unalterable format that facilitates clear

audit trails that enhance overall data trustworthiness. UDO's true

Write Once recording offers an unrivalled level of data integrity,

since the recording surface only permits data to be written a

single time and unique serial numbers on each piece of media

further add.

UDO for the Broadcasting Industry

Digital audio and video files require large amounts of storage

space and 30GB UDO media in combination with automated libraries

provides the capacity needed to meet the demand. Since many of

these files are a matter of public record, some will have

indefinite retention periods requiring stable media with a very

long life. UDO has a scientifically verified media life of over 50

years that gives the broadcast industry the opportunity to store

large volumes of data with virtually zero on-going maintenance. The

longevity of the media also means that data migration cycles can be

greatly extended, dramatically reducing the long-term cost of the

overall archive. The removability of UDO media also supports off-

line media vaulting, reducing archive storage costs and increasing

security over decades of archive life.

UDO for Governmental Organizations

The huge volume of records maintained and preserved by

governmental organizations worldwide calls for the most reliable

archival solution at the lowest possible cost and with quick access

characteristics. UDO meets all these requirements, offering

permanent media with professional quality hardware, cost effective

storage for years of operation and very fast access to huge data

archives. As a result of "freedom of information" laws, many

national, state and local governments must now respond rapidly to

citizen requests against a huge range of information.
.
10.UDO DRIVE
(DESK TOP DRIVE & INTERNAL DRIVE)
10.1DESK TOP DRIVE

UDO Desktop Drives bring professional archival storage to small

office and departmental environments at an affordable price.

Healthcare facilities, accounting and legal departments,

engineering and design offices, publishing houses and many other

businesses benefit from the high capacity, performance and

reliability of UDO Desktop Drives for the long-term storage of

their valuable information.
Engineered for demanding archive environments, UDO Drives are

certified with very high duty cycles that ensure reliable operation

in combination with fast seek times and high read/write speeds

optimized for the unique performance requirements of a data

archive.
The UDO Desktop drive supports Write Once UDO media for unmatched

data authenticity and compliance with industry regulations and UDO

Rewritable media for more general archive requirements that demand

data longevity while allowing older records to be erased and media

space reused.
The UDO Desktop Drive package includes a UDO drive in a compact,

attractive enclosure, external power supply, interface / power

cables, one piece of 30GB UDO Rewritable media and software drivers

for Windows and Linux operating systems.
10.2 INTERNAL DRIVE

UDO Internal Drives consist of a conventional UDO drive, but

without an external enclosure or power supply. Using an industry

standard half-height form factor, the UDO Internal Drive is

designed for easy installation into computer servers and

specialized peripheral devices such as medical imaging equipment,

digital recording devices, and document scanners.
UDO Drives Specifications Summary
Media Load Time 5 sec
Media Unload Time 3 sec
Average Seek Time 35 msec
Buffer Memory 32MB
Max Sustained Transfer Rate - Read 8 MB/s
Max Sustained Transfer Rate - Write 4 MB/s (with verification)
MSBF - Mean Swap Between Failure 750,000 load/unload cycles
MTBF - Mean Time Between Failure 100,000 hours
Interface Wide Ultra 2 LVD SCSI


11. UDO VS OTHER DISC FORMATS CD
CDs- compact disks - hold either 680 or 700MB of data. That's

sufficient for 80 minutes of music. They are used for music and

also for distributing software or storing digital data such as

images
CD: Compact Disc or CD-Audio, a digital storage medium formed of a

12cm diameter polycarbonate foundation layer coated with a

reflective metalized layer, and a protective lacquer coating. The

physical format of CDs is described by the ISO9660 .It rapidly

became apparent in the late 90s that the CD with its 680M or

slightly more capacity was insufficient. The consumer drive was for

a format that could hold more digital photos with the Holy Grail

being the storage of a whole movie.
DVD
DVDs are big advance incapacity over CDs, offering 4.7GB. Like

CDs, DVDs store data in microscopic grooves running in a spiral

around the disc.

DVD technology writes in smaller 'pits' to the recordable media

than CD technology. Smaller pits mean that the drive's laser must

produce a smaller spot. DVD technology achieves this by reducing

the laser's wavelength from the 780nm infrared light used in

standard CD.
Smaller data pits allow more pits per data track. The minimum pit

length of a single layer DVD-RAM is 0.4 micron as compared to 0.834

micron for a CD. Additionally, DVD tracks are closer together,

allowing more tracks per disc. Track pitch-the distance from the

center of one part of the spiral information or 'track' to the

adjacent part of the track-is smaller. On a 3.95GB DVD-R, track

pitch is 0.8 microns;CD track pitch is 1.6 micron, These narrow

tracks require special lasers for reading and writing ” which can't

read CD-ROMs, CD-Rs, CD-RWs, or audio CDs. Most drive makers have

solved this problem by putting two lasers in their design.
Data access speeds
DVD accesses data faster than CD and uses more robust error

correction. In fact, the speed of DVD demands a new unit of

measure. CD drive speeds are expressed as multiples of that

format's original data transfer rate 'X,' or 150KB per second. A

32X CD-ROM drive reads data at 32 times 150KBps or 4MBps. DVD's 1X

is 1.38MBps. That's faster than an 8x CD drive.

And after DVDs

There are three optical formats that offer more than 8.5GB. These

are Plasmon's UDO, HD-DVD and Blue-ray. All three used blue laser

light. This has a narrower beam than red laser light.
UDO is positioned as a business data storage format. The others are

primarily consumer-focused with a secondary business storage use,

just like CDs and DVDs.UDO is developed from the earlier MO -

magneto-optical - disks.
Blue-ray: Blue-ray is a Sony-supported format and holds 25GB in

single layer form, but with two layers and double-sided recording,

could hold 100GB. Such capacities mean high-definition movies could

be stored. It needs a cartridge to hold it and the disk can't be

played in DVD-players.

HD-DVD: High-definition DVD. HD DVD is a 20GB capacity format

which could, via multiple layers hold more than 50GB. Disks don't

need cartridges.

MO: An older format with disks providing 9.1GB and were used for

business data archiving purposes.

UDO: A Plasmon-only format offering 30GB capacity for business

data storage purposes
12. CONCLUSION
Ultra Density Optical, the next generation 5¼ professional optical

data storage technology, has been developed based on phase change

technology. The first generation UDO drive incorporates a 405nm

blue laser diode with high numerical aperture, NA=0.7 objective

lens to realize a capacity of 30GB on a double-sided 5¼,

cartridged disc. Both true write once and high cyclability

rewritable UDO media have been developed for the multi-function

drive. Robust performance with excellent margins has been

demonstrated. The roadmap for UDO extends for at least three

generations, leading to media capacity of at least 120GB capacity.

The UDO roadmap was designed to use proven technologies at all

stages in order to ensure that products could be delivered on time

and to budget. Too often, companies try to push a new technology to

its limits too early and suffer the inevitable delays to program

schedules, cost overruns and failures to deliver to specifications.
In contrast, UDO takes the existing proven elements of Blue-ray

technology to deliver a family of professional data storage

products with the initial generation. Later generations push the

technology further as the industry develops the techniques required

to manufacture components required to an acceptable level.
REFRENCE
1. sonynet.com
2. plasmon.com
3. udo.com
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projectsofme
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Posts: 1,124
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12-10-2010, 04:56 PM


.pdf   optical disc.pdf (Size: 200.8 KB / Downloads: 46)
This article is presented by:
Akash S. Govani
08BCE096
Department of Computer Science & Engineering
Institute of Technology
Nirma University
Ahmedabad 382 481
Optical Disks


ABSTRACT—The paper describes the optical disks namely CD and DVD. A brief idea is presented about the data encoding on these disks and how the corresponding players decode the data to generate the desired output.The data burning process is also described in case of CD. A through reading of the paper will definitely push the working of these optical disks.

INTRODUCTION
In computing and is a flat, usually circular disc which encode binary data in the form of pits (binary value of 0 or off, due to lack of reflection when read) and lands (binary value of 1 or on, due to a reflection when read) on a special material (often aluminium) on one of its flat surfaces. The encoding material sits atop a thicker substrate (usually polycarbonate) which makes up the bulk of the disc and forms a dust defocusing layer. The encoding pattern follows a continuous, spiral path covering the entire disc surface and extending from the innermost track to the outermost track. The data is stored on the disc with a laser or stamping machine, and can be accessed when the data path is illuminated with a laser diode in an optical disc drive which spins the disc at speeds of about 200 RPM up to 4000 RPM or more depending on the drive type, disc format, and the distance of the read head from the center of the disc (inner tracks are read at a faster disc speed). The pits or bumps distort the reflected laser light, hence most optical discs (except the black discs of the original PlayStation video game console) characteristically have an iridescent appearance created by the grooves of the reflective layer. The reverse side of an optical disc usually has a printed label, generally made of paper but sometimes printed or stamped onto the disc itself. This side of the disc contains the actual data and is typically coated with a transparent material, usually lacquer. Unlike the 3-inch floppy disk, most optical discs do not have an integrated protective casing and are therefore susceptible to data transfer problems due to scratches, fingerprints, and other environmental problems. Optical discs are usually between 7.6 and 30 cm (3 to 12 inches) in diameter, with 12 cm (4.75 inches) being the most common size. A typical disc is about 1.2 mm (0.05 inches) thick, while the track pitch (distance from the center of one track to the center of the next) is typically 1.6 m (microns). An optical disc is designed to support one of three recording types: read-only (eg: CD and CD-ROM), recordable (writeonce, e.g. CD-R), or re-recordable (rewritable, e.g. CD-RW). Write-once optical discs commonly have an organic dye recording layer between the substrate and the reflective layer. Rewritable discs typically contain an alloy recording layer composed of a phase change material, most often AgInSbTe, an alloy of silver, indium, antimony and tellurium.Optical discs are most commonly used for storing music (e.g. for use in a CD player), video (e.g. for use in a DVD player), or data and programs for personal computers. The Optical Storage Technology Association (OSTA) promotes standardized optical storage formats. Although optical discs are more durable than earlier audio-visual and data storage formats, they are susceptible to environmental and daily-use damage. Libraries and archives enact optical media preservation procedures to ensure continued usability in the computer’s optical disc drive or corresponding disc player.
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