wearable computers full report
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ABSTRACT

The concept of wearable computing was first brought forward by Steve Mann, who, with his invention of the ËœWearCompâ„¢ in 1979 created a pioneering effort in wearable computing. Other than being a portable computer, a wearable computer must be an adaptive system with an independent processor. That is the system must adapt to the whims and fancies of the user instead of the user having to adapt his lifestyle for the system.
The six devices to be introduced represent the new frontiers in the development of wearable technology. They are:
1. Nomad “ Wearable Audio Computing
2. DyPERS “ Dynamic Personal Enhanced Reality System
3. Wearable Cinema
4. Affective Computers
5. FAST “ Wearable Computing for Factory Personnel
6. Computerized Clothing
INTRODUCTION
With computing devices becoming smaller and smaller it is now possible for an individual to don such a device like a hat or jacket. It is clear that these technology will enable us to extent the desktop resources(including memory computation and communication) to anywhere in travel. Also this constant access, augmented by a battery of body mounted sensors will enable a computer to be sensitive to the activities in which we are engaged and thus allow the computer to participate in an active manner as we perform our tasks. This area includes computer science, computer engineering and psychology.
Other than being a portable computer, a wearable computer must be an adaptive system with an independent processor. That is the system must adapt to the whims and fancies of the user instead of the user having to adapt his lifestyle for the system. The system must be perpetually on and must provide seamless information transfer whenever the user requires it.
HISTORY
The concept of wearable computing was first brought forward by Steve Mann, who, with his invention of the ËœWearCompâ„¢ in 1979 created a pioneering effort in wearable computing. Although the effort was great, one of the major disadvantages was the fact that it was nothing more than a miniature PC. Absence of lightweight, rugged and fast processors and display devices was another drawback.
The 1980s brought forward the development of the consumer camcorder, miniature CRTs etc. brought forward the development of the eyeglass mounted multimedia computer. With the advent of the internet and wireless networking technologies, wearable devices have developed a great deal.
After its invention wearables have gone through 18 generations of development, with research going on at prestigious institutions like MIT, Georgia Tech and Carnegie Mellon University.
The six devices to be introduced represent the new frontiers in the development of wearable technology. They are:
1. Nomad “ Wearable Audio Computing
2. DyPERS “ Dynamic Personal Enhanced Reality System
3. Wearable Cinema
4. Affective Computers
5. FAST “ Wearable Computing for Factory Personnel
6. Computerized Clothing

NOMAD “ WEARABLE AUDIO COMPUTING
The Nomadic Radio provides an audio only wearable interface and acts as a unified messaging system. Remote information such as email, voicemail, hourly news broadcasts, reminders, traffic reports etc are automatically downloaded and presented to the user in a seamless manner. The presentation is such that it produces minimum disturbance to the user.
Objective
In the present day, when unlimited information is made available to the user through various media, it is found increasingly that the user suffers from information overload. That is, unwanted information is being provided to the user and this causes less stress being placed on the required information. E.g. Spam mails in our inbox. Moreover the user is not able to access the information at all times.
Pagers and Cellular phones provide mobility to a large extent, but the information that can be transmitted through a pager is very limited and cellular phone services are expensive as all the data processing is done by the telephony servers rather than by the phone itself.
The Nomad filters information and provides adaptive notification, messaging and communication services on a wearable device. The system determines the method of presentation of the information based on the time of the day, physical position, scheduled tasks, message content, and level of interruption and acoustics of the environment. The userâ„¢s long term listening patterns will also be taken into consideration.

Nomadic Radio is developed as a unified messaging system which utilizes spatialized audio, speech synthesis and recognition on a wearable audio platform. The system mainly works on a client server model. A combination of speech and button inputs allow the user unlimited access to the information he wants. Text messages such as email; reminders etc are converted to voice using a synthesizer. Users can select from the various categories of information available, browse the messages and save or delete from the server. As the system gains location awareness, a scenario is envisaged where the information is presented depending on the location of the user.
Design of the Wearable Platform
Audio output must be provided such that it causes minimum hindrance and maximum privacy to the user. Headphones cannot be used as it would be a nuisance for obvious reasons. Thus speakers worn on the body were developed.
The Soundbeam Neckset worn around the neck consists of two directional speakers provided on the userâ„¢s shoulders and a directional microphone placed on the userâ„¢s chest. A button is provided to activate speech recognition. Spatialized audio is provided in the neckset. A rugged version of the neckset is the Radio Vest which consists of four directional speakers, a rugged housing and modular configuration.
Network Architecture

The nomadic radio consists of a client server model and works over a wireless LAN. The Neckset is connected to a Pentium based portable processor connected to the waist. The web servers download information such as: emails and voicemails from the userâ„¢s mailbox, reminders, hourly news broadcasts, and weather and traffic reports. The web server filters the information and removes unwanted information. The user, when notified can download the information
from the web server to the radio and listen to it in the required format. The network also consists if a position server whereby the position of the user can be determined using an IR sensor.
Working with the Device
The information must be provided to the user in such a manner that it causes minimum disturbance to the user. One of the methods used by the Nomad is to broadcast the news, reports etc in the background. The Audiostreamer device checks for Head Related Transfer Functions (HRTF), i.e. whether the user is straining his head to listen to the news. If so, the volume of the broadcast is increased. Spatialized listening is provided for the voicemails and emails which arrive at different times of the day. The audio is arranged in such a way that the sound arrives from different directions for mails arriving at different times of the day. The device mainly works in 3 modes of operation:
Broadcasting
In this mode, messages are broadcast to the user at low tones, in the background. If the user pays attention to the message (by button press or HRTF), the message is brought to the foreground, else it is faded away.
Browsing
In this mode the user selects the category and plays back the messages sequentially. When a required message is received, the user can stop the device and listen to the message in the foreground.
Scanning
In this mode, certain portions of the message are played sequentially each message coming to the foreground for sometime and then fading out as the new message enters the foreground. The user selects the message as it comes to the foreground.
Awareness & Communication
The Nomad allows the user to be aware of the location of other users and determine their location using the position sensor. The user can also chat with other users from a remote location using the Nomad network.
DyPERS
Introduction
As computation becomes faster and easier, human capabilities like daily scheduling like planning, scheduling etc can be performed by personal digital assistants (PDAs). But transfer of this information from the real world to the PDAs requires tremendous effort from the user. Thus this transfer of information must be provided in a natural seamless manner. For this we use DyPERS “ Dynamic Personal Enhanced Reality System.
The device acts as an audio-visual memory assistant which reminds the user at appropriate times using perceptual cues. The DyPERS stores relevant information from what the user sees using a portable camera. This audio visual clip is stored along with the required index in the memory of the system. Whenever the device encounters the device again in its field of vision, the system plays back the clip through a Heads up Display (HUD).
Audio-Visual Associative Memory System
The main principle of operation of DyPERS is called Record & Associate. In this system, the user records relevant video clips using the camera mounted on the line of sight of the user. After recording he associates the recorded clip to an object which acts as the index to the clip. The device then scans for the indexed image and if it Ëœseesâ„¢ a similar object, it is sent to the processor which compares it with the original index and returns a Ëœconfidence levelâ„¢. If the confidence level is above a certain threshold level, the video clip is played back on the HUD by the system.

Working
The audio-visual recording module accumulates buffers containing audio-visual data. These circular buffers contain the past 2 seconds of compressed audio and video. Whenever the user decides to record the current interaction, the system stores the data until the user signals the recording to stop. The user moves his head mounted video camera and microphone to specifically target and shoot the footage required. Thus, an audio-video clip is formed. After recording such a clip, the user selects the object that should trigger the clip's playback. This is done by directing the camera towards an object of interest and triggering the unit (i.e. pressing a button). The system then instructs the vision module to add the captured image to its database of objects and associate the object's label to the most recently recorded A/V clip. The user can select from a record button, an associate button and a garbage button. The record button stores the A/V sequence. The associate button merely makes a connection between the currently viewed visual object and the previously recorded sequence. The garbage button associates the current visual object with a NULL sequence indicating that it should not trigger any play back. This helps resolve errors or ambiguities in the vision system.
Whenever the user is not recording, the system continuously scans its field of view to check whether any of the objects in its database are present. If so the video clip is played back as instructed. The recording, association and retrieval are presented in a continuous manner.
Object Recognition System
In order to recognize an object, multidimensional histograms of the object image are taken and is compared with the histograms of the images in the database of the system. Similar histograms were considered as a positive recognition. In order to test whether such a system would work, an experiment was conducted in which 103 similar objects were scanned at different image plane rotations and views points.
Hardware
At present, data transmission is via wireless radio communications, which makes mobility of the user, limited. In the future better data transmission methods could be evolved. The main components of the DyPERS system are shown:


The HUD is a Sony Glasstron display with semi-transparent display and headphones. A video camera with wide eye lens is used to increase field of vision and is mounted near the userâ„¢s forehead to remain in the line of sight. The A/V data captured by the camera is transmitted using a wireless radio transmitter to a workstation. Here the captured video is split into image clips and compared to various images in its database. The required data is then transmitted back to the user. The clips are then displayed on the Glasstron HUD. Two A/V channels are used at all times to transfer data bidirectionally.
Applications
The applications of such a device are tremendous. Some of them are:
o Daily scheduling can be stored easily and associated with a personal trigger object.
o An important conversation can be recorded and associated with the personâ„¢s visiting card.
o Online instructions could be provided for an assembly task.
o The device could be used for crime prevention by recognizing the criminal by comparing with earlier records.

WEARABLE CINEMA
Introduction
Application in Museum Environment:
Over many years, the concept of interactive cinema has been experimented with, without much success. With the advent of wearable computing, this concept might be a reality. Researchers sat the MIT Media Lab have developed a new way whereby interactive cinema can be displayed to the wearer, using visual cues from the environment.
The experimentation was performed in a museum environment. Interactive documentaries and explanations on each exhibit had to be shown to the visitor to give him an enhanced experience. The introductory presentation must not divert the viewerâ„¢s attention away from the exhibit. The wearable cinema offers to fuse together the documentary and the visitorâ„¢s path in the exhibit using a wearable computer.
A perceptive media modeling of the content unfolds the wearable cinema as the visitor walks around the space, and the camera attached to the wearable recognizes its presence in specific locations or relevant objects.
The Wearable Cinema system allows recording small chunks of video and associates them with triggering objects. When the objects are seen again at a later moment, the video is played back. Wearable Cinema is not a simulation running on a desktop computer connected to a head mounted display. It actually runs on a wearable, which was especially designed for it, and the computer vision runs in real time on the wearable CPU.
The main distinctive characteristic of this setup is that it uses real time computer vision as input for easier and faster location finding. The system uses DyPERS technology to recognize objects in its field of vision. A quick training on the locations or objects to recognize is the only setup needed for the computer vision system at start. The wearable is made by two sandwiched CPUs. One is dedicated to processing the input and the other to produce the output shown on the wearable display. These two very thin and lightweight computers are hosted inside a stylized backpack. The wearable is connected to a small wide-angle camera worn on the userâ„¢s shoulder, and to a high resolution SVGA display.
Working
Once the training is over, the system is ready to be used. Initially the first CPU and camera is used to recognize the object. As the viewer comes near an exhibit, the image of the exhibit is captured by the camera and its histogram is compared with the indexes in its database. Once the information has been obtained, the CPU gives the contacts the next system which stores all the documentaries. The required documentary is selected and played back on an augmented reality display to enhance the viewer experience.
AFFECTIVE COMPUTING
An ``affective wearable'' is a wearable system equipped with sensors and tools which enables recognition of its wearer's affective patterns. Affective patterns include expressions of emotion such as a joyful smile, an angry gesture, a strained voice or a change in autonomic nervous system activity such as accelerated heart rate or increasing skin conductivity. Affective Wearables are similar to medical wearables as both sense physiological signals.
One of the biggest problems in emotion theory is determining the physiological patterns accompanying each emotion. These signals could vary depending on the individual. This limits the application of affective computers to a great deal.
Applications
In the modern world when people have less time to care about their health, affective signals give crucial information on anxiety, depression etc which have been shown to affect the work of the immune system, slowing down healing and making people more vulnerable to viral infections. Thus the wearer can make informed decisions and can be shared with a physician. It can also be used in treating chronic problems like back pain, migraine etc which can be stress related.
In addition to medical applications, affective wearables function as effective memory managers. Emotions are known provide a keen index into human memory. So a computer that pays attention to your emotional state will know what you are likely to remember. This is useful to people dealing with information overload.
One of the recently developed devices which work on the principles of Affective Computing is the Startle Cam “ being developed at the media lab at MIT.
Startle Cam
How it works
The Startle Cam is a wearable video recording mechanism which responds to a Ëœstartleâ„¢ by the wearer. The cam consists of a camera worn as a pendant around the wearerâ„¢s neck, together with skin conductivity sensors and pattern recognition software. The camera continuously records and stores in a buffer, deleting the oldest images as the buffer is filled. Simultaneously, the system uses small electrodes on the wearerâ„¢s skin. The pattern recognition software recognizes the wearerâ„¢s startle response. The startle is selected as this emotion is fairly robust and easy to detect. Images are stored in a virtual buffer until the detection algorithm of the Startle Cam is detected.
When the startle is detected, the images extracted from the buffer can be saved in the permanent memory for later use. The images are saved as a single image and is either saved to the hard drive or sent over the internet to a remote server.
By saving the information when a startle is detected, the system substitutes for the human ˜flash memory™, whereby extremely arousing events are stored with clarity in one™s mind. The camera can also be used in the opposite sense “ to record those details one might have missed while the mind was idle.

The StartleCam system consists of a skin conductivity sensor (GSR) which is sampled by an analog to digital converter attached to a wearable computer. A digital camera and digital modem are also attached to the computer. Images are captured by the digital camera and stored in a buffer in memory. When the computer algorithm detects a startle response, the buffer of images is downloaded and transmitted wirelessly back to the Internet. Figure (a) shows the details of the system and Figure (b) shows the system as worn with skin conductivity sensors on the hand can be placed on the fingers.

FAST “ WEARABLE COMPUTING FOR FACTORY PERSONNEL
Introduction
Factories and workplaces today are being more and more automated. The machines being used in these environments are being more complex and difficult to perceive. In the present setup, it is necessary for the worker in the factory to know the working of the device and how to repair it in case of faults. For this purpose, organizations provide training to the employees. But the various disadvantages of training are:
Training is costly and time-consuming. Training takes employees off the job and sometimes requires employees to travel to a different location.
Training is not immediate. Training is often forgotten by the time it is finally needed on the job. Also, since a lot of training is not performed in the context of the job, it is difficult for employees to transfer what they are learning in training to the actual job that they do at work.
Training is geared towards increasing knowledge as opposed to increasing productivity. Since the true business goal of training is to improve the productivity of the work force, training is currently not directly serving this goal.
Training is trainer-centered as opposed to learner-centered. The trainer decides what the employee should know as opposed to the employee asking for the information that the employee needs to get the job done.
Training is evaluated on learner satisfaction and attainment of classroom goals instead of job performance. Good job performance is the true goal of training.
It is in such situations that performance support systems like FAST are used. These devices train the employees on the job. This is a major shift in the way training is currently conducted.
FAST Performance Support System
Factory Automation Support Technology (FAST) is a new project and implimentation for Georgia Tech researchers. FAST is intended to: 1) train employees as they perform their jobs, rather than before they perform their jobs, and 2) meet the needs of today's mobile work force.
Hardware
Fast hardware consists of a wearable voice activated computer system. The system is basically an Intel 486 computer with 24 MB RAM, 340 MB hard disk and wireless network adapter. Nickel metal hydride battery packs are used as power supply. The system works on Windows 95, UNIX or DOS operating systems.

The main components of the system are:
A see-through display allows the user to work while looking at text, drawings, and video that is pertinent to the user's job.
A wireless communications link sends and receives up-to-date information to and from the plant computer system.
A wearable computer allows the user to enter and receive information wherever the user goes
A battery pack to supply power for all the components
This computer system enables employees to get information at the task site and, since their hands are not busy operating the computer, to continue to perform a task as they are receiving the information. This wearable computer system complements software-based performance support systems by making them accessible to employees at all times and in all places during their work day.
Software
The main information provided by the FAST System to the trainee is:
¢ Just-in-time, task-specific training
¢ Expert advice about a job task
¢ Step-by-step procedures
¢ Data collection forms for inspection tasks
¢ A database of past problems and resolutions
¢ Communication links for remote collaboration with experts
The main menu on the head mounted display includes the following:
¢ A brief description of the task goal
¢ The steps to follow to meet the goal
¢ A tool that helps the user correct his or her work.
¢ An on-line library of background information.
A typical interaction consists of several steps. Any step is begun by speaking into the headset any word or combination of words visible on the screen. The system then recognizes the spoken phrase and calls up the requested information automatically. If for some reason the user does not wish to speak the command, a pointing device may be used instead to select an item by clicking on the desired button. Any visible words on buttons are possible commands. The user continues to navigate through the system using voice commands and may occasionally be required to enter some data as well. in the section that has step-by-step instructions, each step begins with a simple static drawing and auditory instructions. To understand the intricacies described by the step, the user can examine the drawing for as long as desired. Since the display does not block the user's field of view, the user can look at the drawings, listen to the auditory instructions, or view an explanatory video while completing the prescribed task.
Advantages of using FAST
Preliminary studies conducted by Carnegie Mellon University in conjunction with maintenance of heavy vehicles point the way to significant advantages including:
o 1000 to 1 reduction in the weight of the documentation in electronic form vs. paper
o 2 to 1 reduction in the number of personnel required to perform an inspection task
o 40% reduction in time required to perform an inspection procedure
o 30% reduction in post processing time of collected data.
Advances of FAST Technology
The next generation of FAST computers will use networking technology, whereby video capture devices will be connected to a wearable computer and the device is networked with the main system so that a technician can send live video and audio of the equipment to a remote expert. The expert can then communicate to the technician through video and come with a solution.

COMPUTERIZED CLOTHING
There is a major movement towards the development of the next generation of wearable computers “ being called as the post PC era. With this fast developing technology, computers and other electronic devices will be able to be directly integrated into our clothing, so that they are virtually invisible. Computerized Clothes will be the next step in making computers and devices portable without having to strap electronic gadgets onto our bodies.
The Fabric
Cotton, polyester or rayon don't have the needed properties to carry the electrical current needed for digital clothing. Researchers at MIT's Media Lab are using silk organza, a unique fabric that has been used to make clothes in India for at least a century.
A micrograph of silk organza.
The copper foil that is wrapped around the horizontal threads can be seen.
Silk organza is ideal for computerized clothing because it is made with two fibers that make it conducive to electricity. The first
fiber is just an ordinary silk thread, but running in the opposite direction of the fiber is silk thread that is wrapped in a thin copper foil. It's this copper foil that gives silk organza the ability to conduct electricity. Copper is a very good conductor of electricity and some microprocessor manufacturers are beginning to use copper to speed up microprocessors.
Not only is silk organza a good electrical conductor, but it's fiber's are spaced with the right amount of space, so that the fibers can be individually addressed. A strip of the fabric would basically function like a ribbon cable. Ribbon cables are used in computers to connect disk drives to controllers. One problem with using silk organza would result if the circuits were to touch each other, therefore MIT scientists use an insulating material to coat or support the fabric.
Once the fabric is cut into a desirable shape, other components need to be attached to the fabric, like resistors, capacitors and coils. These components are sewn directly to the fabric. Additional components, such as LEDs, crystals, piezo transducers and other surface mount components, if needed, are soldered directly onto the metallic yarn, which the developers say is an easy process. Other electronic devices can be snapped into the fabric by using some kind of gripper snaps, which pierce the yarn to create an electrical contact. These devices can then be easily removed in order to clean the fabric.
GTWM
Research on the design and development of a Smart Shirt for Combat Casualty Care has led to the realization of the world's first Wearable Motherboard or an "intelligent" garment for the 21st Century. The Georgia Tech Wearable Motherboard uses optical fibers to detect bullet wounds, and special sensors and interconnects to
monitor the body vital signs during combat conditions. This Georgia Tech Wearable Motherboard (Smart Shirt) provides an extremely versatile framework for the incorporation of sensing, monitoring and information processing devices. The principal advantage of Smart Shirt is that it provides, for the first time, a very systematic way of monitoring the vital signs of humans in an unobtrusive manner.
Requirement:
Casualties are associated with combat and sometimes are inevitable. Since medical resources are limited in a combat scenario, there is a critical need to make optimum use of the available resources to minimize such casualties. Therefore, any effort to minimize the loss of human life has a value that is priceless. In a significant departure from the past, the loss of even a single soldier in a war can alter the nationâ„¢s engagement strategy making it all the more important to save lives.
Similarly, on the civilian side, the population is aging and the cost of healthcare delivery is expected to increase at a rate faster than it is today. With the decreasing number of doctors in rural areas, the doctor/patient ratio is, in certain instances, reaching unacceptable levels for ensuring a basic sense of comfort for people living in such areas. Patients discharged after major surgeries typically experience a loss of sense of security when they leave the hospital because they feel "cut off" from the continuous watch and care they received in the hospital. This degree of uncertainty can greatly influence their post-operative recovery. Therefore, there is a need to continuously monitor such patients and give them the added peace of mind so that the positive psychological impact will speed up the recovery process. Mentally ill patients need to be monitored on a regular basis to gain a
better understanding of the relationship between their vital signs and their behavioral patterns so that their treatments can be suitably modified. Such medical monitoring of individuals is critical for the successful practice of telemedicine that is becoming economically viable in the context of advancements in computing and telecommunications. Likewise, continuous monitoring of astronauts in space, of athletes during practice sessions and in competition, of law enforcement personnel and combat soldiers in the line of duty are all extremely important.

The GTWM was woven into a single-piece garment (an undershirt) on a weaving machine to fit a 38-40" chest. The plastic optical fiber (POF) is spirally integrated into the structure during the fabric production process without any discontinuities at the armhole or the seams using a novel modification in the weaving process.
An interconnection technology was developed to transmit information from (and to) sensors mounted at any location on the body thus creating a flexible "bus" structure. T-Connectors -- similar to "button clips" used in clothing -- are attached to the fibers that serve as a data bus to carry the information from the sensors (e.g., EKG sensors) on the body. The sensors will plug into these connectors and
at the other end similar T-Connectors will be used to transmit the information to monitoring equipment or DARPA's (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) personal status monitor. By making the sensors detachable from the garment, the versatility of the Georgia Tech Smart Shirt has been significantly enhanced. Since shapes and sizes of humans will be different, sensors can be positioned on the right locations for all users and without any constraints being imposed by the Smart Shirt. In essence, the Georgia Tech Smart Shirt can be truly "customized." Moreover, the Smart Shirt can be laundered without any damage to the sensors themselves.
The interconnection technology has been used to integrate sensors for monitoring the following vital signs: temperature, heart rate and respiration rate. In addition, a microphone has been attached to transmit the wearer's voice data to monitoring locations. Other sensors can be easily integrated into the structure.
Using the GTWM
A combat soldier attaches sensors to his body, pulls the Smart Shirt on, and attaches the sensors to the Smart Shirt. The Smart Shirt functions like a motherboard, with plastic optical fibers and other specialty fibers woven throughout the actual fabric of the shirt. To pinpoint the exact location of a bullet penetration, a 'signal' is sent from one end of the plastic optical fiber to a receiver at the other end. The emitter and the receiver are connected to a Personal Status Monitor (PSM) worn at hip-level by the soldier. If the light from the emitter does not reach the receiver inside the PSM, it signifies that the Smart Shirt has been penetrated (i.e., the soldier has been shot). The signal bounces back to the PSM from the point of penetration, helping the medical personnel pinpoint the exact location of the soldier's wound.
The soldier's vital signs-heart rate, temperature, respiration rate, etc. are monitored in two ways: through the sensors integrated into the T-shirt; and through the sensors on the soldier's body, both of which are connected to the PSM. Information on the wound and the soldier's condition is immediately transmitted electronically from the PSM to a medical triage unit somewhere near the battlefield. The triage unit then dispatches the appropriate medical personnel to the scene. The Georgia Tech Smart Shirt can help a physician determine the extent of a soldier's injuries based on the strength of his heartbeat and respiratory rate. This information is vital for assessing who needs assistance first during the so-called 'golden hour' in which there are numerous casualties.

CONCLUSION
Wearable Computer has come a long way from the days of the WearComp. Extensive research and development work at various centers have ensured that these wonderful devices will change our lives dramatically in the near future. Several commercial vendors have started manufacturing and marketing these devices.
The earlier devices were quite obtrusive and often made the wearer ill at ease, but recently, such devices have been gaining social acceptance. This is attributed partly to miniaturization and partly to dramatic changes in peopleâ„¢s attitude to personal electronics. This factor will soon disappear as the apparatus disappears into ordinary clothing and eyeglasses. Clothing based computing with personal imaging will blur all boundaries between seeing and viewing and between remembering and recording. Rather than living within our own personal information domain, networking will enlarge our scope through shared visual memory which enables us to remember something we have never seen.
With computers as close as shirts on our backs, interaction will become more natural. This will improve the ability to do traditional computing whiling standing or walking.
Within the next few years, we con expect entirely new modes of human “ computer interaction to arise. Wearable Computers will help in the development of a cyborg “ a system in which the camaraderie between a human and machine becomes seamlessly simple. This will bring forward a new set of technical, scientific and social needs which will have to be addressed as we take the first step towards coexisting with wearable computers.
REFERENCES
Recognizing User Context via Wearable Sensors by
Brian Clarkson, Alex Pentland, Kenji Mase
Issues in Wearable Computing for Medical Monitoring Applications: A Case Study of a Wearable ECG Monitoring Device by
Thomas Martin, Emil Jovanov, Dejan Raskovic
IEEE Spectrum - Octrober 2000/ volume 37/ number 20 - The PC goes ready to wear. by Steve Ditlea
Websites:
MIT “ media lab:
media.mit.edu/wearables
web.media.mit.edu/~nitin/NomadicRadio/
lcs.media.mit.edu/project and implimentations/wearables
web.media.mit.edu/~jebara/htmlpapers/DyPERSTR/darpa.html
vismod.media.mit.edu/tech-reports/
Georgia Tech University
iswc.gatech.edu
wearables.gatech.edu
mime1.marc.gatech.edu/wearable_computing/links/papers/
Others:
wearablecomputing
wearpcinfobase/infobase.html
cs.uoregon.edu/research/wearables/Oregon/

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
HISTORY
NOMAD “ WEARABLE AUDIO COMPUTING
DYPERS “ DYNAMIC PERSONAL ENHANCED REALITY SYSTEM
WEARABLE CINEMA
AFFECTIVE COMPUTERS
FAST “ WEARABLE COMPUTING FOR FACTORY PERSONNEL
COMPUTERIZED CLOTHING
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I express my sincere thanks to Prof. M.N Agnisarman Namboothiri (Head of the Department, Computer Science and Engineering, MESCE), Mr. Zainul Abid (Staff incharge) for their kind co-operation for presenting the seminar and presentation.
I also extend my sincere thanks to all other members of the faculty of Computer Science and Engineering Department and my friends for their co-operation and encouragement.

Shabeel P.V
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ABSTRACT
With computing devices becoming smaller and smaller it is now possible for an individual to don such a device like a hat or jacket. It is clear that these technology will enable us to extent the desktop resources (including memory computation and communication) to anywhere in travel. Also this constant access, augmented by a battery of body mounted sensors will enable a computer to be sensitive to the activities in which we are engaged and thus allow the computer to participate in an active manner as we perform our tasks. This area includes computer science, computer engineering and psychology.
INTRODUCTION
Other than being a portable computer, a wearable computer must be an adaptive system with an independent processor. That is the system must adapt to the whims and fancies of the user instead of the user having to adapt his lifestyle for the system. The system must provide seamless information transfer whenever the user requires it.
HISTORY
The concept of wearable computing was first brought forward by Steve Mann, who, with his invention of the 'Wear Comp' in 1979 created a pioneering effort in wearable computing. Although the effort was great, one of the major disadvantages was the fact that it was nothing more than a miniature PC. Absence of lightweight, rugged and fast processors and display devices was another drawback.
The 1980s brought forward the development of the consumer camcorder, miniature CRTs etc. brought forward the development of the multimedia computer. With the advent of the internet and wireless networking technologies, wearable devices have developed a great deal.
After its invention wearables have gone through 18 generations of development, with research going on at prestigious institutions like MIT, Georgia Tech and Carnegie Mellon University.
The devices to be introduced represent the new frontiers in the development of wearable technology. They are:
1. Nomad - Wearable Audio Computing
2. DyPERS - Dynamic Personal Enhanced Reality System
3. Wearable Cinema
3. NOMAD - WEARABLE AUDIO COMPUTING
The Nomadic Radio provides an audio only wearable interface and acts as a unified messaging system. Remote information such as email, voicemail, hourly news broadcasts, reminders, traffic reports etc are automatically downloaded and presented to the user in a seamless manner. The presentation is such that it produces minimum disturbance to the user.
Objective
In the present day, when unlimited information is made available to the user through various media, it is found increasingly that the user suffers from information overload. That is, unwanted information is being provided to the user and this causes less stress being placed on the required information. E.g. Spam mails in our inbox. Moreover the user is not able to access the information at all times.
Pagers and Cellular phones provide mobility to a large extent, but the information that can be transmitted through a pager is very limited and cellular phone services are expensive as all the data processing is done by the telephony servers rather than by the phone itself.
The Nomad filters information and provides adaptive notification, messaging and communication services on a wearable device. The system determines the method of presentation of the information based on the time of the day, physical position, scheduled tasks, message content, and level of interruption and acoustics of the environment. The user's long term listening patterns will also be taken into consideration.

Nomadic Radio: wearable audio messaging

Voice Recognition for Navigation and Control
Synthetic Speech for Feedback


Nomadic Radio is developed as a unified messaging system which utilizes speech synthesis and recognition on a wearable audio platform. The system mainly works on a client server model. A combination of speech and button inputs allow the user unlimited access to the information he wants. Text messages such as email; reminders etc are converted to voice using a synthesizer. Users can select from the various categories of information available, browse the messages and save or delete from the server. As the system gains location awareness, a scenario is envisaged where the information is presented depending on the location of the user.
Design of the Wearable Platform
Audio output must be provided such that it causes minimum hindrance and maximum privacy to the user. Headphones cannot be used as it would be a nuisance for obvious reasons. Thus speakers worn on the body were developed.
The Soundbeam Neckset worn around the neck consists of two directional speakers provided on the user's shoulders and a directional microphone placed on the user's chest. A button is provided to activate speech recognition. Spatialized audio is provided in the neckset.
Network Architecture

The nomadic radio consists of a client server model and works over a wireless LAN. The Neck set is connected to a Pentium based portable processor connected to the waist. The web servers download information such as: emails and voicemails from the user's mailbox, reminders, hourly news broadcasts, and weather and traffic reports. The web server filters the information and removes unwanted information. The user, when notified can download the information from the web server to the radio and listen to it in the required format. The network also consists if a position server whereby the position of the user can be determined.

Working with the Device
The information must be provided to the user in such a manner that it causes minimum disturbance to the user. One of the methods used by the Nomad is to broadcast the news, reports etc in the background. The Audio streamer device checks for Head Related Transfer Functions (HRTF), i.e. whether the user is straining his head to listen to the news. If so, the volume of the broadcast is increased. Spatial zed listening is provided for the voicemails and emails, which arrive at different times of the day.
The device mainly works in 3 modes of operation: 1) Broadcasting
In this mode, messages are broadcast to the user at low tones, in the background. If the user pays attention to the message (by button press or HRTF), the message is brought to the foreground, else it is faded away.
2) Browsing
In this mode the user selects the category and plays back the messages sequentially. When a required message is received, the user can stop the device and listen to the message in the foreground.
3) Scanning
In this mode, certain portions of the message are played sequentially each message coming to the foreground for sometime and then fading out as the new message enters the foreground. The user selects the message as it comes to the foreground.
AWARENESS & COMMUNICATION
The Nomad allows the user to be aware of the location of other users and determine their location using the position sensor. The user can also chat with other users from a remote location using the Nomad network.

Wearable Computers
4. DyPERS
Introduction
As computation becomes faster and easier, human capabilities like daily scheduling like planning, scheduling etc can be performed by personal digital assistants (PDAs). But transfer of this information from the real world to the PDAs requires tremendous effort from the user. Thus this transfer of information must be provided in a natural seamless manner. For this we use DyPERS - Dynamic Personal Enhanced Reality System.
The device acts as an audio-visual memory assistant which reminds the user at appropriate times using perceptual cues. The DyPERS stores relevant information from what the user sees using a portable camera. This audio visual clip is stored along with the required index in the memory of the system. Whenever the device encounters the device again in its field of vision, the system plays back the clip.
Audio-Visual Associative Memory System
The main principle of operation of DyPERS is called Record & Associate. In this system, the user records relevant video clips using the camera mounted on the line of sight of the user. After recording he associates the recorded clip to an object which acts as the index to the clip. The device then scans for the indexed image and if it 'sees' a similar object, it is sent to the processor, which compares it with the original index and returns a 'confidence level'. If the confidence level is above a certain threshold level, the video clip is played back by the system.

Working
The audio-visual recording module accumulates buffers containing audio-visual data. These circular buffers contain the past 2 seconds of compressed audio and video. Whenever the user decides to record the current interaction, the system stores the data until the user signals the recording to stop. The user moves his head mounted video camera and microphone to specifically target and shoot the footage required. Thus, an audio-video clip is formed. After recording such a clip, the user selects the object that should trigger the clip's playback. This is done by directing the camera towards an object of interest and triggering the unit (i.e. pressing a button). The system then instructs the vision module to add the captured image to its database of objects and associate the object's label to the most recently recorded Audio/Video clip. The user can select from a record button, an associate button and a garbage button. The record button stores the A/V sequence. The associate button merely makes a connection between the currently viewed visual object and the previously recorded sequence. The garbage button associates the current visual object with a NULL sequence indicating that it should not trigger any play back. This helps resolve errors or ambiguities in the vision system.
Whenever the user is not recording, the system continuously scans its field of view to check whether any of the objects in its database are present. If so the video clip is played back as instructed. The recording, association and retrieval are presented in a continuous manner.
Object Recognition System
In order to recognize an object, multidimensional histograms of the object image are taken and is compared with the histograms of the images in the database of the system. Similar histograms were considered as a positive recognition. In order to test whether such a system would work, an experiment was conducted in which 103 similar objects were scanned at different image plane rotations and views points.
Hardware
At present, data transmission is via wireless radio communications, which makes mobility of the user, limited. In the future better data transmission methods could be evolved.
The main components of the DyPERS system are shown:

The HUD is a Sony Glasstron display with semi-transparent display and headphones. A video camera with wide eye lens is used to increase field of vision and is mounted near the user's forehead to remain in the line of sight. The A/V data captured by the camera is transmitted using a wireless radio transmitter to a workstation. Here the captured video is split into image clips and compared to various images in its database. The required data is then transmitted back to the user. The clips are then displayed on the Glasstron HUD. Two A/V channels are used at all times to transfer data bidirectionally.
Applications
The applications of such a device are tremendous. Some of them are:
* Daily scheduling can be stored easily and associated with a personal trigger object.
* An important conversation can be recorded and associated with the person's visiting card.
* Online instructions could be provided for an assembly task.
* The device could be used for crime prevention by recognizing the criminal by comparing with earlier records.

5. WEARABLE CINEMA
Introduction
Application in Museum Environment:
Over many years, the concept of interactive cinema has been experimented with, without much success. With the advent of wearable computing, this concept might be a reality. Researchers sat the MIT Media Lab have developed a new way whereby interactive cinema can be displayed to the wearer, using visual cues from the environment.
The experimentation was performed in a museum environment. Interactive documentaries and explanations on each exhibit had to be shown to the visitor to give him an enhanced experience. The introductory presentation must not divert the viewer's attention away from the exhibit. The wearable cinema offers to fuse together the documentary and the visitor's path in the exhibit using a wearable computer.
A variety of historical footage is collected and authored an interactive presentation for a wearable computer using a Wearable City 3D graphics presentation to situate the user in the space. The audiovisual presentation of the footage and its description are authored using Macromedia's Flash authoring environment. A perceptive media modeling of the content unfolds the wearable cinema as the visitor walks around the space, and the camera attached to the wearable recognizes its presence in specific locations or relevant objects.
The Wearable Cinema system allows recording small chunks of video and associates them with triggering objects. When the objects are seen again at a later moment, the video is played back. Wearable Cinema is not a

simulation running on a desktop computer connected to a head mounted display. It actually runs on a wearable, which was especially designed for it, and the computer vision runs in real time on the wearable CPU.

The main distinctive characteristic of this setup is that it uses real time computer vision as input for easier and faster location finding. The system uses DyPERS technology to recognize objects in its field of vision. A quick training on the locations or objects to recognize is the only setup needed for the computer vision system at start. The wearable is made by two sandwiched CPUs. One is dedicated to processing the input and the other to produce the output shown on the wearable display. These two very thin and lightweight computers are hosted inside a stylized backpack. The wearable is connected to a small wide-angle camera worn on the user's shoulder, and to a high resolution SVGA display.
Working
Once the training is over, the system is ready to be used. Initially the first CPU and camera is used to recognize the object. As the viewer comes near an exhibit, the image of the exhibit is captured by the camera and its histogram is compared with the indexes in its database. Once the information has been obtained, the CPU gives the contacts the next system which stores all the documentaries. The required documentary is selected and played back on an augmented reality display to enhance the viewer experience.
6. CONCLUSION
Wearable Computer has come a long way from the days of the WearComp. Extensive research and development work at various centers have ensured that these wonderful devices will change our lives dramatically in the near future. Several commercial vendors have started manufacturing and marketing these devices.
The earlier devices were quite obtrusive and often made the wearer ill at ease, but recently, such devices have been gaining social acceptance. This is attributed partly to miniaturization and partly to dramatic changes in people's attitude to personal electronics. This factor will soon disappear as the apparatus disappears into ordinary clothing and eyeglasses. Clothing based computing with personal imaging will blur all boundaries between seeing and viewing and between remembering and recording. Rather than living within our own personal information domain, networking will enlarge our scope through shared visual memory which enables us to "remember "something we have never seen.
With computers as close as shirts on our backs, interaction will become more natural. This will improve the ability to do traditional computing whiling standing or walking. By letting computing system function as a second brain, the system could develop situational awareness, perceptual intelligence and an ability to see from the wearer's perspective while assisting him in his day to day activities.
Within the next few years, we con expect entirely new modes of human - computer interaction to arise. Wearable Computers will help in the development of a cyborg - a system in which the camaraderie between a human and machine becomes seamlessly simple. This will bring forward a new set of technical, scientific and social needs which will have to be addressed as we take the first step towards coexisting with wearable computers.
7. REFERENCES
Recognizing User Context via Wearable Sensors by Brian Clarkson, Alex Pentland, Kenji Mase
Issues in Wearable Computing for Medical Monitoring Applications: A Case Study of a Wearable ECG Monitoring Device by Thomas Martin, Emil Jovanov, Dejan Raskovic
IEEE Spectrum - Octrober 2000/ volume 37/ number 20 - The PC goes ready to wear, by Steve Ditlea
Websites:
MIT - media lab:
media.mit.edu/wearables
web.media.mit.edu/~nitin/NomadicRadio/
lcs.media.mit.edu/project and implimentations/wearables
web.media.mit.edu/~jebara/htmlpapers/DyPERSTR/darpa.html
vismod.media.mit.edu/tech-reports/
Georgia Tech University
iswc.gatech.edu wearables.gatech.edu
mimel.marc.gatech.edu/wearable_computing/links/papers/ Others:
wearablecomputing wearpcinfobase/infobase.html cs.uoregon.edu/research/wearables/Oregon/ http: //wearables. Stanford. edu/


1. INTRODUCTION
2. HISTORY
3. NOMAD
4. DyPERS
5. WEARABLE CINEMA
6. CONCLUSION
7. REFERENCES
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18-03-2010, 12:46 PM

Abstract
This proposal offers an exciting new technology tool for the development of a wearable computer system prototype for firefighters. This tool is worn by firefighters under their jacket with the computer mounted on the external Oxygen tank. The database is accessed from a miniature computer/PDA to display the floor plan, pictures, hazardous materials, building occupancy numbers and owner contact information while traveling to the scene of the fire. This provides needed background informa tion to the firefighter before entering the building. With a standard cell phone the fire-fighters can call the owner to obtain additional information before arriving on-site. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is used for external location determination, and while in the building, the floor plan and current location are displayed in the visor for reference, using sonar ultrasonic transceivers to sense the environment and show the exact location of the fire fighter. Additionally, for the fire fighters safety and protection, the wearable computer also has a health monitor with temperature, heart rate/pulse and fall sensors. The data for these sensors are collected and sent via Bluetooth wireless and wired connections to the wearable computer. New application software was developed to receive and interpret the sensor data. Alerts and alarms were incorporated to sense falls, abnormal or no pulse and high temperature. These alerts are sent via wireless connections to a monitoring station on the fire engine, where a colleague will monitor the status of each fire fighter.

Presented By:

Team 4
Steven Alt
Rita Hubert
Christian Martinez
Bob Zandoli


I. Introduction
Statement of Problem
Police, Fire and Medical Safety officers require additional knowledge to do their jobs better and to provide for their safety on the job. Firefighters have voice communication devices on their lapels; however, this is not reliable or sufficient to provide these emergency workers with the information need to do their job better and to protect their safety and health. The problem is the need for information about a building they must enter and once they enter the building to know the floor plan of the building and their location in the building. This paper proposes the development of the prototype wearable computer system for fire fighters. While enroute to the fire, the fire fighters will use the miniature computer to select the building pictures, floor plans, hazardous materials listing, occupancy data from a database containing all information about each building in the fire patrol area. A standard cellular phone will be used to contact the owner (contact information in the database) and obtain additional information. While at the fire location a GPS unit will track their location. While in the building the floor plan will be displayed on their visor and a sonar ultrasonic sensor will display their exact location on the floor plan. A fall monitor, temperature measurement and heart/plus monitor will track their health status and send alerts via Bluetooth wireless connection to the wearable computer. Since a colleague outside the building, will need to be notified in the event of a fall, abnormal or no pulse or excessive heat, an application program will be developed to read the monitor information collected and send alerts and alarms to the base station, if necessary, via wireless communications.
Relevance of the Work
Emergency works, especially Firefighters, need more information about a building before entering the structure to enhance their ability to do their job and avoid injury or death. This system will provide them with the all the information available about the building, provide floor plans, GPS and sonar location information and monitor their falls, temperature and pulse rate with alerts based on the monitoring information sent to a base system on the fire engine, where the system information can be monitored by a colleague. This prototype will provide needed information, enhance the safely, and reduce the injury and fatality rate for fire fighters


for more
hci.iastate.edu/~nelsonkj/documents/fire2.pdf
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.ppt   Wearable computer.ppt (Size: 1.14 MB / Downloads: 416)
POINTS TO BE DISCUSSED
INTRODUCTION
OPERATIONAL MODES
XYBERNAUT
NETWORKING AND OPERATING SYSTEM
COMPONENT PIECES
OUTLOOK
AGENTS
RECOGNISING EFFECT
APPLICATIONS
FUTURE RESEARCH
CONCLUSION
INTRODUCTION
A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during use.
Wearable computers are usually either integrated into the user's clothing or can be attached to the body
through some other means , like a wristband.
The computer evolution has moved from mainframes, to the desktop, and now the computing power is moving onto the
person.
The user actually "wearing" the computer, s/he can utilize the power and functionality virtually anywhere in
their environment.
This technology is developing and changing rapidly primarily due to vast changes in computer speed,
wireless technology and miniaturization of components.

Operational Modes of Wearable Computer
Constancy

Augmentation

Mediation
Xybernaut: A Current Commercially Available Wearable System
Networking and Operating System
The goal of wearable/interactive computers is to network all components through one operating
system.
There are two competing operating systems, Sun Microsystems Jini and Microsoft Windows
CE ("Compact Edition").
Sun apparently sees all appliances /components networked through Java/Jini interface,
while MS seems to be taking the more traditional personal computer interface approach in
connecting appliances to the network.
Far Field and Near field Communication.
Camera
One Handed Keyboard
Custom clothing
Monitor
Input device
HANDTYPING
WrIST DEVICE
FINGER MOUSE
Positioning System

Battery Power
PC-104 based 50 MHz 486 computer,16M RAM,1G hard disk.
Bio-Sensors
Sound board and Video board
CRT or LCD display
Extra disk capacity
Agents
A premise of a wearable computer is that the computer can learn and become customized to the
user's needs, based upon the task the user is involved with. If the user is viewing a document, the
Wearable Computer may suggest an associated email, showing minimal information such as the subject, sender,
date, or what ever information the user would want to view to get a sense as to decide whether the
entire email should be retrieved.
Humans are poor at data retrieval, and a complex hierarchical directory quickly breaks down when the
human user loses the thread of where the item being searched for resides. A computer remembrance agent can
take cues from this environment to assist in locating appropriate files from memory, picking up on
cues like where the user is, is the user alone or with someone , what is the user doing at that time,
etc., all can be used to search and locate appropriate files that may be relevant to the user at
that time. In this manner the computer is a continual presence, always 'looking over the shoulder' of
the user. For example, at a staff meeting the Wearable Computer can assist in remembering names of
attendees, who was at the meeting prior, what they said at that time, what was on the agenda, and also
to suggest topics which might be of relevance to what was going. The computer is always active in searching the
user's own personal data base for information which might prove useful within the context of the current task
the user is performing.
Our emotions play a significant role in our every day life, and up to now, this had been unrepresented within
human computer interfaces. Human vital signs such as blood pressure , temperature, galvanic skin
response, foot pressure and electromyograms can be tracked and monitored through the use of body sensors
connected into the wearable computer. In this manner, the computer becomes physically connected to the
user and can learn to recognize physiological states . By this monitoring of body vital signs and
learning how the user reacts when in different feeling and mood states, the computer
can take action accordingly. For example, if the user likes to hear a certain type of music at
one time and another during a different mood state, the computer can plan on providing this to the user at
the appropriate times.
The affective sensors could also be of assistance in medical monitoring where important health data
might be tracked and reported directly to the userâ„¢s physician. They list four bio-sensors used in a
current prototype affective wearable system: measuring respiration , skin conductivity, blood volume
pressure and electromyogram, all of which the sensors can monitor painlessly from the
surface of the skin. These four sensors are monitored via a Linux operating system, and can be sampled up
to 20 times per second. Affective computing employs its own intelligent agent which can make
decisions based upon analysis of the incoming environmental and physiological sense data.
Applications
Smart Wallet
Worker Training and Worker Support

Handicapped

Future Research

Future research and development issues include the following:
Ergonomic research - best method to utilize components, e.g. - the head set such that it is comfortable and is
helping and not distracting the user from the task. There needs to be more light weight efficient and easily
powered computer apparatus which is comfortable to wear.
In terms of Network using the body as the networks medium, to increase the speed at which they can run also
to increase to bps speed of data transfer .

Conclusion

Lot of research and experiments for practical & tactical use of Wearable Computer are going on
around the world. Several types of Wearable Computerâ„¢s are indeed commercially
available, but as of now most of them are tailor made for specific applications. It is only a
matter of time before the consumer community accepts the idea. The shift that the Wearable Computerâ„¢s will
bring;computer working along with you instead of you working at the computer.Though the wearable has not
seen the widespread acceptance given to the desktop, work continues in this field to meet the
challenges that inhibit its growth. Processors and sensors need to be effectively integrated into textiles; and
displays, whether head or body mounted, need to effective under a wide range of lighting conditions - all
of these must be comfortable to wear
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24-08-2010, 11:01 AM

seminar and presentation report of wearable computers[/font]
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17-09-2010, 04:54 PM

Hi,
the report of wearable compuers is posted in doc format st the top in this thread. Feel free to download it.
more reports are available at:
scribddoc/23496342/Wearable-Computers
scribddoc/12885634/Wearable-Computers
scribddoc/28351429/Wearable-Computer
scribddoc/36244580/Wearable-Computer
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.doc   wearablec.doc (Size: 62 KB / Downloads: 103)
wearable computing

ABSTRACT

The concept of wearable computing was first brought forward by Steve Mann, who, with his invention of the ‘WearComp’ in 1979 created a pioneering effort in wearable computing. Other than being a portable computer, a wearable computer must be an adaptive system with an independent processor. That is the system must adapt to the whims and fancies of the user instead of the user having to adapt his lifestyle for the system.
The six devices to be introduced represent the new frontiers in the development of wearable technology. They are:
1. Nomad – Wearable Audio Computing
2. DyPERS – Dynamic Personal Enhanced Reality System
3. Wearable Cinema
4. Affective Computers
5. FAST – Wearable Computing for Factory Personnel
6. Computerized Clothing


INTRODUCTION
With computing devices becoming smaller and smaller it is now possible for an individual to don such a device like a hat or jacket. It is clear that these technology will enable us to extent the desktop resources(including memory computation and communication) to anywhere in travel. Also this constant access, augmented by a battery of body mounted sensors will enable a computer to be sensitive to the activities in which we are engaged and thus allow the computer to participate in an active manner as we perform our tasks. This area includes computerscience, computer engineering and psychology.
Other than being a portable computer, a wearable computer must be an adaptive system with an independent processor. That is the system must adapt to the whims and fancies of the user instead of the user having to adapt his lifestyle for the system. The system must be perpetually on and must provide seamless information transfer whenever the user requires it.

HISTORY
The concept of wearable computing was first brought forward by Steve Mann, who, with his invention of the ‘WearComp’ in 1979 created a pioneering effort in wearable computing. Although the effort was great, one of the major disadvantages was the fact that it was nothing more than a miniature PC. Absence of lightweight, rugged and fast processors and display devices was another drawback.
The 1980s brought forward the development of the consumer camcorder, miniature CRTs etc. brought forward the development of the eyeglass mounted multimedia computer. With the advent of the internet and wireless networking technologies, wearable devices have developed a great deal.
After its invention wearables have gone through 18 generations of development, with research going on at prestigious institutions like MIT, Georgia Tech and Carnegie Mellon University.
The six devices to be introduced represent the new frontiers in the development of wearable technology. They are:
1. Nomad – Wearable Audio Computing
2. DyPERS – Dynamic Personal Enhanced Reality System
3. Wearable Cinema
4. Affective Computers
5. FAST – Wearable Computing for Factory Personnel
6. Computerized Clothing

NOMAD – WEARABLE AUDIO COMPUTING
The Nomadic Radio provides an audio only wearable interface and acts as a unified messaging system. Remote information such as email, voicemail, hourly news broadcasts, reminders, traffic reports etc are automatically downloaded and presented to the user in a seamless manner. The presentation is such that it produces minimum disturbance to the user.
Objective
In the present day, when unlimited information is made available to the user through various media, it is found increasingly that the user suffers from information overload. That is, unwanted information is being provided to the user and this causes less stress being placed on the required information. E.g. Spam mails in our inbox. Moreover the user is not able to access the information at all times.
Pagers and Cellular phones provide mobility to a large extent, but the information that can be transmitted through a pager is very limited and cellular phone services are expensive as all the data processing is done by the telephony servers rather than by the phone itself.
The Nomad filters information and provides adaptive notification, messaging and communication services on a wearable device. The system determines the method of presentation of the information based on the time of the day, physical position, scheduled tasks, message content, and level of interruption and acoustics of the environment. The user’s long term listening patterns will also be taken into consideration.

Nomadic Radio is developed as a unified messaging system which utilizes spatialized audio, speech synthesis and recognition on a wearable audio platform. The system mainly works on a client server model. A combination of speech and button inputs allow the user unlimited access to the information he wants. Text messages such as email; reminders etc are converted to voice using a synthesizer. Users can select from the various categories of information available, browse the messages and save or delete from the server. As the system gains location awareness, a scenario is envisaged where the information is presented depending on the location of the user.
Design of the Wearable Platform
Audio output must be provided such that it causes minimum hindrance and maximum privacy to the user. Headphones cannot be used as it would be a nuisance for obvious reasons. Thus speakers worn on the body were developed.
The Soundbeam Neckset worn around the neck consists of two directional speakers provided on the user’s shoulders and a directional microphone placed on the user’s chest. A button is provided to activate speech recognition. Spatialized audio is provided in the neckset. A rugged version of the neckset is the Radio Vest which consists of four directional speakers, a rugged housing and modular configuration.
Network Architecture

The nomadic radio consists of a client server model and works over a wireless LAN. The Neckset is connected to a Pentium based portable processor connected to the waist. The web servers download information such as: emails and voicemails from the user’s mailbox, reminders, hourly news broadcasts, and weather and traffic reports. The web server filters the information and removes unwanted information. The user, when notified can download the information
from the web server to the radio and listen to it in the required format. The network also consists if a position server whereby the position of the user can be determined using an IR sensor.
Working with the Device
The information must be provided to the user in such a manner that it causes minimum disturbance to the user. One of the methods used by the Nomad is to broadcast the news, reports etc in the background. The Audiostreamer device checks for Head Related Transfer Functions (HRTF), i.e. whether the user is straining his head to listen to the news. If so, the volume of the broadcast is increased. Spatialized listening is provided for the voicemails and emails which arrive at different times of the day. The audio is arranged in such a way that the sound arrives from different directions for mails arriving at different times of the day. The device mainly works in 3 modes of operation:
Broadcasting
In this mode, messages are broadcast to the user at low tones, in the background. If the user pays attention to the message (by button press or HRTF), the message is brought to the foreground, else it is faded away.
Browsing
In this mode the user selects the category and plays back the messages sequentially. When a required message is received, the user can stop the device and listen to the message in the foreground.
Scanning
In this mode, certain portions of the message are played sequentially each message coming to the foreground for sometime and then fading out as the new message enters the foreground. The user selects the message as it comes to the foreground.
Awareness & Communication
The Nomad allows the user to be aware of the location of other users and determine their location using the position sensor. The user can also chat with other users from a remote location using the Nomad network.


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.pdf   wearable computer ranjith.pdf (Size: 139.29 KB / Downloads: 105)
WIRELESS APPLICATION PROTOCOL

Daniel Roggen, Bert Arnrich, Gerhard Tr¨oster
Wearable Computing Laboratory, ETH Z¨urich, Switzerland
wearable.ethz.ch


Abstract.

Wearable computers, embedded in clothing or seamlessly integrated
in devices we carry with us, have a tremendous advantage to
become the main gateway to personal health management. Current stateof-
the-art devices allow to monitor basic physical or physiological parameters.
Applications include e.g. improving performance in sports, early
fall detection for elderly people, long-term heart monitoring in order to
quantify recovery after surgery.
Those devices however tend to focus on elementary physical or physiological
aspects of health management. In this article we point out that
future wearable device will need to take into considerations social as well
as mental aspects in addition to physical and physiological information
in order to deliver truly personalized, proactive, wearable health or life
style management systems. We highlight open research topics that need
to be addressed to make this vision a reality.


Introduction
The current health care system faces many challenges in view of the aging population.
Reducing health costs while maintaining universal and high quality of
care are among the toughest challenges nowadays. At the same time, with an
increasingly mobile life style, people desire more flexibility in their relation to
the health care system, such as the possibility to get in touch with health care
professionals anywhere and anytime.
Wearable computing has the potential to revolutionize health care by decentralizing
it, giving more control to the patient, and shifting the focus from
treatment to prevention. Wearable computers may become the main gateway
to personal health management, therefore becoming personal health assistants.
Current state-of-the-art devices already allow to monitor basic physical or physiological
parameters. Applications include e.g. early fall detection for elderly people,
or long-term heart monitoring in order to quantify recovery after surgery,
as well as improving performance in sports.
The health care system nowadays is mostly designed to address “life threatening”
situations that have an immediate effects on survival chances (e.g. heart
conditions, diabetes). However, individual life style may have a strong influence
on future health prospects, even if it has no immediate impact on survival. Forof cardiovascular diseases in the long run. The management of these lifestylerelated
factors is difficult to integrate in the current health care system which
is mostly based on sporadic visits of the patient to the health care professional.
Implementing a health-friendly life style may also be a difficult task for the patient
himself. Since the life style may not have immediate effect on the patient’s
health, there is no strong incentive to change one’s behavior, and even if the
patient perceives the need for a change, this may be a daunting task if unaided.
Wearable computing has the potential to become an ubiquitous tool to help
patients manage their life style in a more efficient way, and thus signal a shift
toward user-centric health-management or lifestyle-management.
Health-management addresses a wider population than the current health
care system, targeting the more general “health-savvy” citizen, rather than patients
suffering from critical conditions. Furthermore, health is more than the
mere absence of illnesses. Indeed the World Health Organization defines health
as [...] a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely
the absence of disease or infirmity [1].We envision that, in addition to supporting
lifelong health-management, wearable devices will shift toward supporting the
more all-encompassing concept of “well-being” along the three axes of physical,
mental and social well-being.
This in turn will require new tools, technologies and algorithms to understand
the user’s state and provide him with adequate feedback on how to improve
his condition. We argue that one of the key mechanism of wearable computing,
context recognition, will need to be expanded significantly in order to understand
higher level, more complex, contexts than what is currently state of the art. In
particular, the detection of cognitive, social or emotional states may be required
for the system to understand the current state and needs of the user.
In this article we highlight the open questions and future research topics
that need to be addressed by the research community in order to make of this
vision a reality. We describe our vision of life style management in section 2. We
then review in section 3 current state of the art wearable devices, that mostly
address the physical aspect of well-being. In section 4 we describe recent results
evidencing that the detection of mental as well as social states is possible, and
therefore that the combination of the three aspects of physical, mental and social
well-being in a device may be a likely outcome. In section 5 we highlight the open
questions that must be addressed. In particular, recognizing the user context,
his daily routine, together with his social interactions, emotional or cognitive
states, and correlating these with a sense of well-being or with potential long
term clinical outcomes, are research topics that have not yet been tackled in the
wearable computing community. Finally we conclude this paper in section 66
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24-12-2010, 12:46 PM

BY
K.Akhila, Shazia.
JNTUH, Karimnagar


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Abstract:
Technology has become such an important part that it is now wearable. Wearable computers can be defined as “data gathering and disseminating devices which enable the user to operate more efficiently. These devices are carried or worn by the user during normal execution. They are efficient way to access the personal information accessed from human input. The clothes that you wear have now become smart enough to know your emotional state .Wearable computers are based on surface computing. The term referred for the use of specialized GUI. Instead of a keyboard and mouse, the user directly interacts with a touch sensitive screen. Skinput is a technology that appropriates the human body for acoustic transmission allowing skin to be used as an input surface. IBM, Microsoft (Skinput), MIT, showing keen interest in this field. SNIF- social networking on Fur, reality mining call phone project and implimentation, smart clothes Light glove, Wrist Pulse Oximeter are the popular wearable computers. They have made their place in all spheres of lives. With a wide range of applications, they are especially useful applications that require computations support while the user’s hands, voice, eyes, arms or attention are actively engaged with the physical environment. Wearable computing is one of the most sought after the fields of Information.


Technology for research and development. Pranav Mystry:”The
Thrilling Potential to Sixth Sense Technology” uses wearable computers. It attempts to free information from it’s confines by seamlessly integrating with reality, and thus making the entire world your computer.
It proves that the human body can be used as sensor giving path to a new dimension of computing. The possibilities with wearable computers are endless. In future you may walk down home, tap your palm open the door, and tap some buttons to start your music system. It’s almost like a Magic
Keywords: consistency, intuitive, augmentation, sixth sense, surface computing

Introduction:
Wearable computers are computers that are worn on the body. This type of technology has been used in the behavioral modeling, health monitoring system, information technologies and media development. They give us more flexibility than any other gadget that we commonly use, such as laptops and tablets. Wearable computers provide s portable access to information. Furthermore, the information can be automatically accumulated by the system as the user interacts with the computer and modifies the environment, there by eliminating the costly and error prone process of information acquisition. Also, wearable computers can be easily configured to meet specific needs of applications.
This paper consists of various wearable computers, concept behind their applications.
History: The history of wearable computers takes us way back to the 1500s. The pocket watch invented back then can be noted as the first wearable computer. The concept of modern day wearable computers emerged in the 1960s .The system was a cigarette packet-sized analogue computer that could predict Russian roulette (a casino game) wheels.
Rapid development in this area picked up in the mid 90s.A workshop titled “ Wearable computers within 2005” was conducted in collaboration with the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency(DARPA).since then , there have been many research project and implimentations taken up and many wearable computers created. Some of them are as follows:
In 2001, IBM developed and publically displayed two prototypes for a wrist watch computer running Linux. It Supported a VGA screen .The Watch pad capable of handling text, photos, and animation. It was considered to be very useful for office purposes. Ease in maintenance of appointment details was a feature it promised.
Steve Mann (a scientist from MIT) worked a lot in this field. In 1980s, he designed and built a backpack mounted 6502 based computer to control flash bulbs, cameras and other photographic systems. He developed this system, made it more compact and easy to use.
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1. INTRODUCTION
A wearable computer is a computer that is subsumed into the personal space of the user, controlled by the user, and has both operational and interactional constancy, i.e. is always on and always accessible. Most notably, it is a device that is always with the user, and into which the user can always enter commands and execute a set of such entered commands, and in which the user can do so while walking around or doing other activities. This transformation allows it to be worn constantly, with the goal of becoming a seamless extension of body and mind, equipped with various sensors which measure heart rate, respiration, footstep rate etc, and can help in body maintenance. The ‘wearable computer’ apparatus is embedded within nontransparent clothing which provides shielding.
Electronic circuits are built entirely out of textiles to distribute data and power and perform touch sensing.The most salient aspect of computers, in general, (whether wearable or not) is their reconfigurability and their generality, e.g. that their function can be made to vary widely, depending on the instructions provided for program execution. With the wearable computer (Wear Comp), this is no exception, e.g. the wearable computer is more than just a wristwatch or regular eyeglasses: it has the full functionality of a computer system but in addition to being a fully featured computer, it is also inextricably intertwined with the wearer. This is what sets the wearable computer apart from other wearable devices such as wristwatches, regular eyeglasses, wearable radios, etc.
Unlike these other wearable devices that are not programmable (reconfigurable), the wearable computer is as reconfigurable as the familiar desktop or mainframe computer



2. HISTORY
The concept of wearable computing was first brought forward by Steve Mann, who, with his invention of the ‘Wear Comp’ in 1979 created a pioneering effort in wearable computing. Although the effort was great, one of the major disadvantages was the fact that it was nothing more than a miniature PC. Absence of lightweight, rugged and fast processors and display devices was another drawback.
The 1980s brought forward the development of the consumer camcorder, miniature CRTs etc. brought forward the development of the eyeglass mounted multimedia computer. With the advent of the internet and wireless networking technologies, wearable devices have developed a great deal.
After its invention wearables have gone through 18 generations of development, with research going on at prestigious institutions like MIT, Georgia Tech and Carnegie Mellon University.



3. DISCUSSION
3.1 OPERATIONAL MODES
There are three operational modes in this new interaction between human and computer.
• Constancy:
The computer runs continuously, and is ‘always ready’ to interact with user. Unlike hand-held device, laptop computer, or PDA, it does not need to be opened up and turned on prior to use. The signal flow human to computer to human, runs continuously to provide a constant user interface.

• Augmentation:
Traditional computing paradigms are based on the notion that computing is the primary task. Wearable computing, however, is based on the notion that computing is NOT the primary task. The assumption of wearable computing is that the user will be doing something else at the same time as doing computing. Thus the computer should serve to augment the intellect, or augment the senses.

• Mediation:
Unlike hand held devices, laptop computers, and PDAs, the wearable computer can encapsulate us. It doesn’t necessarily need to completely enclose us, but the concept allows for a greater degree of encapsulation than traditional portable computers.
There are two aspects to this encapsulation:
(i) Solitude:
It can function as an information filter, and allow us to block out material we might not wish to experience, whether, it be offensive advertence or simply a desire to replace existing media with different media in less severe manifestations, it may simply allow us to alter our perception of reality in a very mild sort of way.
(ii) Privacy:
Mediation allows us to block or modify information leaving the encapsulated space. In the same way that ordinary clothing prevents other from seeing our naked bodies, the wearable computer may, for example, serve as an intermediary for interacting with untrusted systems, such as third party digital anonymous clash “cyber wallets”.

3.2 ATTRIBUTES
There are four information flow paths associated with this new Human – machine synergy. The signal flow paths are, in fact, attributes of wearable computing, and are described, that follows, from the human’s Point of view:
• UNRESTRICTIVE to the user:
Ambulatory, mobile, roving “you can do other things while using it”, e.g. you can type while jogging, etc.
• OBSERVABLE by the user:
It can get your attention continuously if you want it to. Almost always observable. Within reasonable limitation (e.g. that you might not see the screen while you blink or look away momentarily) the output medium is constantly perceptible by the wearer.
• CONTROLLABLE by the user:
It means responsive to the user. You can grab control of it at any time you wish. Even in automated processes you can manually override to break open the control loop and become part of the loop at any time you want to. (E.g.: A big Halt button you want as an application mindlessly opens all 50 documents that were highlighted when you accidentally pressed “Enter” would make a computer more CONTROLLABLE.)
Infinitely-often-controllable means the constancy of user-Interface results from almost-always observability and infinitely-often controllability in the sense that there is always a potential for manual override which need not be always exercised.
• COMMUNICATIVE to others:
It can be used as a communications medium when you want it to.
3.3 PROPERTIES
The five properties for a wearable computer are given below:
• CONSTANT:
Always ready. May have “sleep modes’ but never “dead” Unlike a laptop computer which must be opened up, switched on, and booted up before use, it is always on and always running.
• PERSONAL:
Human and computer are inextricably intertwined.
• PROSTHETIC:
You can adapt to it so that it act as a true extension of mind and body. After some time you forget that you are wearing it.
• PRIVATE:
Others can’t observe or control it unless you let them. Others can’t determine system status unless you want them to, e.g. clerk at refund counter in department store where photography is prohibited can’t tell whether or not you are transmitting wireless video to a spouse for remote advice, in contrast to camcorder technology where it is obvious you are taking a picture when you hold it up to your eye.
• EXPRESSIVE:

Allows the wearable to be expressive through the medium, whether as a direct communication medium to others, or as means of assisting the production of expressive media.


4. DIGITAL FABRIC
Cotton, polyester or rayon don't have the needed properties to carry the electrical current needed for digital clothing. However, metallic yarns are not new to the clothing industry. We have seen these metallic fabrics worn to make fashion statements for years. Researchers at MIT's Media Lab are using silk organza, a unique fabric that has been used to make clothes in India at least a century.
Silk organza is ideal for computerized clothing because it is made with two fibres that make it conductive to electricity. The first fibre is an ordinary silk thread; running in the opposite direction of the fibre silk thread that is wrapped in a thin copper foil. It's this copper foil that gives the silk organza the ability to conduct electricity. Copper is a very good conductor of electricity and some microprocessor manufactures are beginning to use copper to speed up microprocessors. The metallic yarn is prepared just like cloth core telephone wire, according to the MIT researchers. If you cut open a coiled telephone cable, there's usually a conductor that is made out of a sheet of copper wrapped round a core of nylon or polyester threads. These metallic yarns can withstand high temperatures; the yarn can be sewn or embroidered using industrial machinery. This property makes it very promising for mass producing computerized clothing.

A strip of the fabric would basically function like a ribbon of cable. Ribbon cables are used in computers to connect disk drives to controllers. One problem with using silk organza would result if the circuits were to touch each other; therefore MIT scientists use an insulating material to coat or support the fabric.
Once the fabric is cut into suitable shape, other components need to be attached to the fabric, like resistors, capacitors and coils. These components are directly sewn to the fabric. Other electronic devices can be snapped into the fabric by using some kind of gripper snaps, which pierce the yarn to create an electrical contact. These devices can then easily removed in order to clean the fabric.
At Georgia Tech, researchers have developed another kind of thread named as plastic optical fibres and other specialty fibres woven into the fabric. These optical and electrical conductive fibres will allow the wear comp to wirelessly communicate with the other devices, transferring data from the sensors embedded in it.




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WEARABLE COMPUTERS
1.Introduction

This document is a part of Wear-Cam or wearable computers specification suit. A wearable computer is a computer that could be worn on the body. It is powered by batteries and it can be connected to several input and output devices, depending on tasks performed by the wearable computer. It allows a much closer association between the computer and the user. The purpose of this document is to specify the software and hardware used, definition, history, present, future, advantages and disadvantages of Wear-Cam
Most portable electronics such as cellular phones, compact disc players or camcorder can all be incorporated into the wearable computer. Using a head-up display and earphones, it provides a better interface. The sensors attached to the wearable computer allow seeing what the user sees, hearing what the user hears. It is able to analyze this information and react accordingly.
1.1 Wearable computers has five major characteristics:
 Portable while operational:
The most distinguishing feature of a wearable is that it can be used while walking or otherwise moving around.
 Hands-free use:
Military and industrial applications for wearables especially emphasize their hand-free aspect, and concentrate on speech input and heads-up display or voice output. Other wearables might also use chording keyboards, dials,and joysticks to minimize the tying up of user’s hands. This distinguishes wearables from both desktop and laptop.
 Sensors:
In addition to user-input’s,a wearable should have sensors for the physical environment. Such sensors might
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Abstract
Softwear : New Generation of Wearable Computers

Envision a personal computer that goes far beyond Tom Cruise's wearable informant in
Mission Impossible - a computer that actually fits into the heel of a shoe and is powered
by the mechanical energy of walking. This is no longer a fantasy, but a reality.
There are many of us who walk around like packed horses with laptop, cell phone PDA and
Pager. Not all these things help everywhere. It is also absurd that these devices can’t talk to
each other. several advancements from the research in hardware, software and communications
Are changing the world.
Let me show you around these technologies, and the way they can simplify anyone’s life. The
Idea of the new wearable technology is not intended only for personal entertainment, like many
Of you may be thinking. Let’s go around the world of wearable computers to know more.
With computing devices becoming smaller and smaller it is now possible for an individual to don such a device like a hat or jacket. It is clear that these technology will enable us to extent the desktop resources(including memory computation and communication) to anywhere in travel. Also this constant access, augmented by a battery of body mounted sensors will enable a computer to be sensitive to the activities in which we are engaged and thus allow the computer to participate in an active manner as we perform our tasks. This area includes computer science, computer engineering and psychology.
Other than being a portable computer, a wearable computer must be an adaptive system with an independent processor. That is the system must adapt to the whims and fancies of the user instead of the user having to adapt his lifestyle for the system. The system must be perpetually on and must provide seamless information transfer whenever the user requires it.
history
The concept of wearable computing was first brought forward by Steve Mann, who, with his invention of the ËœWearCompâ„¢ in 1979 created a pioneering effort in wearable computing. Although the effort was great, one of the major disadvantages was the fact that it was nothing more than a miniature PC. Absence of lightweight, rugged and fast processors and display devices was another drawback.
The 1980s brought forward the development of the consumer camcorder, miniature CRTs etc. brought forward the development of the eyeglass mounted multimedia computer. With the advent of the internet and wireless networking technologies, wearable devices have developed a great deal.
After its invention wearables have gone through 18 generations of development, with research going on at prestigious institutions like MIT, Georgia Tech and Carnegie Mellon University.
The six devices to be introduced represent the new frontiers in the development of wearable technology. They are:
1. Nomad “ Wearable Audio Computing
2. DyPERS “ Dynamic Personal Enhanced Reality System
3. Wearable Cinema
4. Affective Computers
5. FAST “ Wearable Computing for Factory Personnel
6. Computerized Clothing
NOMAD WEARABLE AUDIO COMPUTING
The Nomadic Radio provides an audio only wearable interface and acts as a unified messaging system. Remote information such as email, voicemail, hourly news broadcasts, reminders, traffic reports etc are automatically downloaded and presented to the user in a seamless manner. The presentation is such that it produces minimum disturbance to the user.
Working
The audio-visual recording module accumulates buffers containing audio-visual data. These circular buffers contain the past 2 seconds of compressed audio and video. Whenever the user decides to record the current interaction, the system stores the data until the user signals the recording to stop. The user moves his head mounted video camera and microphone to specifically target and shoot the footage required. Thus, an audio-video clip is formed. After recording such a clip, the user selects the object that should trigger the clip's playback. This is done by directing the camera towards an object of interest and triggering the unit (i.e. pressing a button). The system then instructs the vision module to add the captured image to its database of objects and associate the object's label to the most recently recorded A/V clip. The user can select from a record button, an associate button and a garbage button. The record button stores the A/V sequence. The associate button merely makes a connection between the currently viewed visual object and the previously recorded sequence. The garbage button associates the current visual object with a NULL sequence indicating that it should not trigger any play back. This helps resolve errors or ambiguities in the vision system.
Whenever the user is not recording, the system continuously scans its field of view to check whether any of the objects in its database are present. If so the video clip is played back as instructed. The recording, association and retrieval are presented in a continuous manner.
Object Recognition System
In order to recognize an object, multidimensional histograms of the object image are taken and is compared with the histograms of the images in the database of the system. Similar histograms were considered as a positive recognition. In order to test whether such a system would work, an experiment was conducted in which 103 similar objects were scanned at different image plane rotations and views points.
Hardware
At present, data transmission is via wireless radio communications, which makes mobility of the user, limited. In the future better data transmission methods could be evolved. The main components of the DyPERS system are shown:
The HUD is a Sony Glasstron display with semi-transparent display and headphones. A video camera with wide eye lens is used to increase field of vision and is mounted near the userâ„¢s forehead to remain in the line of sight. The A/V data captured by the camera is transmitted using a wireless radio transmitter to a workstation. Here the captured video is split into image clips and compared to various images in its database. The required data is then transmitted back to the user. The clips are then displayed on the Glasstron HUD. Two A/V channels are used at all times to transfer data bidirectional.
Applications
The applications of such a device are tremendous. Some of them are:
Daily scheduling can be stored easily and associated with a personal trigger object.
An important conversation can be recorded and associated with the persona„¢s visiting card.
Online instructions could be provided for an assembly task.
The device could be used for crime prevention by recognizing the criminal by comparing with earlier records.
1. What is a Wearable Computer?
A wearable computer is a computing device small and light enough to be worn on one's
body without causing discomfort. Unlike a laptop or a palmtop, wearable computer is
constantly turned on and interacts with the a real-world task. Information could be even
very context sensitive.
A typical wearable computer consists of a battery or human powered computing unit and
is carried on a belt or in a jacket. The display would be with a head mounted unit
typically project and implimentationion system on the regular spectacles. The input is either voice driven or
with wireless wrist mounted devices. The data storage is local and does not depend on
any network connection. For hardware and software to comfortably follow you always
around, and seamlessly integrate with your style of living, they must merge into softwear.
Developing wearable computing requires as much attention to the medium as the
message.
Softwear, being a new dimension in the world of computers, demands a phase shift in the
human interaction mechanisms. Let us start our detailed discussion of the wearable
computer, with this new implementation of computer & human interaction. The
traditional desktop metaphors of command line interface or windows-interface are indeed
not at all suitable for wearable computing. These interfaces require a constant user
concentration & interaction while performing any task, which is not affordable for a wearble computer. The concept of wearable computing was first brought forward by Steve Mann, who, with his invention of the in 1979 created a pioneering effort in wearable computing. Other than being a portable computer, a wearable computer must be an adaptive system with an independent processor. That is the system must adapt to the whims and fancies of the user instead of the user having to adapt his lifestyle for the system.
The six devices to be introduced represent the new frontiers in the development of wearable technology. They are:
1. Nomad Wearable Audio Computing
2. DyPERS Dynamic Personal Enhanced Reality System
3. Wearable Cinema
4. Affective Computers
5. FAST Wearable Computing for Factory Personnel
6. Computerized Clothing
wearable computer. The user's hands simply may not be free, or the environmental
conditions may prevent a good audio input at the time.
Human interaction is just one of the examples of several design requirements in the
discussion of wearable computers. You must realize that this is a paradigm shift. Hence,
you must not compare any of the features to a personal computer or a laptop. Think of a
wearable computer in a new dimension, and not in traditional terms. To better understand
our discussion ahead, assume a situation of you being in the role of an Aero plane pilot.
As you walk into the cockpit, you see a sensor indicating a negative correction for zero
tail wind. You walk down to the engine room to do a personal check, but need some
design specs to isolate the problem. Can you really afford to delay the flight while
someone gets the blueprints, or you proceed for the take-off risking all the passengers?
You don't need another person to help you; wearable computer comes of use in these
situations. You may browse through the circuit diagrams or manuals while you actually
keep inspecting the components & circuits.
2. How does a Wearable Computer look?
A typical wearable computer will have a motherboard worn inside a fashion garment,
connecting all the components of the system. The components will be placed at different
parts of the body as per the user convenience; power pack and storage in shoes, display
and mic on the glasses and keyboard input on the wrist. User input to the computer is
either mostly voice driven or sensed from gestures or body motion. The display and audio
output generated by the computer will be relevant to the context and environment.
The below pictures will give you a better idea of how a wearable computer looks like, the
component details and the finished personal garment.
Let's now look at the components of the wearable computer in detail.
Fig. Component details of Wearable Computers
Finished Product – Wearable Computers
3.Human Interface System (Humionics)
The user interface for a wearable computer is fundamentally different from those of the
regular computers. The ideal human-computer interface for use in a wearable
environment would be one which listens to its user, understands what the user has
asked it to do as a combination of speech recognition, gestures and a bit of machine
vision. The results should be presented back to the user in an intelligent manner, when it
is most appropriate and in a suitable format.
Consider an example, a quality inspector looking at car bodies that are going on the
assembly line. He may ask his wearable computer, "when I point that the car on my front
has a fault, scan its serial number and record the error", while pointing the location of the
serial number. This type of interaction with a wearable computer, using spoken sentences
and gestures, fall under the category of multi-modal and intelligent user interfaces.
4.Sulawesi Architecture
A framework called Sulawesi has been designed and implemented to tackle the crucial
challenges in a wearable user interface. This framework gives the wearable computer an
ability to accept input from any number of modalities, and to perform if necessary a
translation to any number of modal outputs. This system that has been designed
consists of three distinct parts,
• Multimodal-multimedia based Input system, gathers raw data from the various sensors
The system gathers real world information through a well-defined API. The current
implementation includes keyboard input, network input, speech recognition input, video
camera input, G.P.S. input and infrared input. This stage helps in connecting devices on
the fly, and provides a device independent abstract layer. Any necessary pre-processing
of the data is done in the next stage.
• Agent based core system, contains a natural language processing module and
service agents
The core of the system contains a basic natural language processor, which performs
sentence translations. This converts a sentence into a command stream from which two
pieces of information are extracted, which service to invoke and how the output should
be rendered. A service manager is responsible for the instantiation and monitoring of the
services. The service manager also checks and queues commands to provide resilience
against system failures.
• Proactive and Wearable Output system, decides when and how to render the results
from the service agents
The output stage takes a modal neutral result from a service and makes a decision on
how to render the information. The decision is made based on two criteria, what the user
has asked for, and how the system perceives the users current context/environment.
If the user has asked to be shown a piece of information, this implies a visual rendition. If
the system detects that the user is moving or busy with an activity (through the input
sensors), an assumption can be made that the user attention might be distracted if results
are displayed in front of him (Imagine what would happen if the user was driving)!
In this case the system will override the users request and would redirect the results to a
more suitable renderer, such as speech. A successful wearable user interface must
combine different types of input and output, depending on the user's context and needs.
5.Operating System & Applications
The operating system and the applications are specifically designed bottom-up for a
wearable computer, to address the humionics. These should satisfy the below criteria,
• Shall be constantly available to the user - always on, ready and accessible
• Shall not require the constant user attention or interaction
• Shall serve to augment user's intellect and senses
• Shall be unobtrusive and unrestrictive to the user. The user shall be able to walk
around, ride in a crowded bus, or even hang glide while using it. This aspect is also
true for the hardware components of the wearable computer
• Always communicate with user within reasonable time limits
• Shall be able to communicate to other systems & external world
• Provide the best use of the 3D object space to scatter the application windows, a big
shift from the regular 2D monitors. It is important to understand that the user has a
much bigger and deeper view for work area in wearable computers, which needs to
be used
6.Augmented Reality
Wearable computing introduces new concepts 'mediated reality' and 'augmented reality',
which are very interesting to know about.
Mediated reality refers to encapsulation of the user's senses by incorporating the
computer with the user's perceptive mechanisms, and is used to process the outside
stimuli. For example, one can mediate his/her vision by applying a computer-controlled
camera to enhance it. The primary activity of mediated reality is direct interaction with
the computer, which means that computer is "in charge" of processing and presenting the
reality to the user. Augmented Reality combines real world scenes and virtual scenes,
thereby augmenting the real world with additional information. The computer must be
able to operate in the background, by providing enough resources to enhance but it
should not replace the user's primary experience of reality. This can be achieved by using
tracked see-through display units and earphones to overlay visual and audio material on
real objects. This technology adds value to the human knowledge, memory &
intelligence.
An example of an AR application is a guidebook as above. As the tourist walks around
the library, his wearable computer uses sensors, for example a combination of GPS and
head tracking equipment, to detect his physical position and orientation. Some text
describing the library is shown on the display unit over the actual building. The wearable
computer assists further in enhancing the value of the real world experience by using
augmented reality.
7.Display Systems
The output device of a wearable computer could be either a head-mounted display
(HMD) unit with an earpiece or only the earpiece for some applications. Though there
could be several other display devices intended for specific applications, HMD systems
are of interest in the conversation of wearable computers.
There are two different types of HMD systems.
The first one, intended for industrial or regular use will have a see-through lens and a
small project and implimentationion system. Only on need basis, the processing system may project and implimentation the
output data onto the lens. The project and implimentationion usually happens only on one of the lenses and
the other lens remains free for clear vision.
The second type of head-mounted display is of blocking type and requires the full-
attention of the user. This is mostly for 3D modeling, is used for understanding complex
mechanical design systems or for personal entertainment requirements.
The HMD systems shown in these pictures have both the earpiece and the mouthpiece
built into them. The HMD systems are already well deep into the development cycle as of
today, and do support several attractive features like wireless connectivity, external
connectors for audio & video, and control settings.


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#13
09-04-2011, 02:55 PM

Presented by:
Yuanfang Cai


.ppt   wearable.ppt (Size: 652.5 KB / Downloads: 167)
Wearable Computing
What is wearable computing

 Wearable
 Portable while operational
 Hand-free or one-handed operation
 unobtrusive
 Augmented reality
 situation aware
>>Wearable Computer Implementation
Overall System Block Diagram :
z >>Wearable Computer Implementation>>Input Device
z >>Wearable Computer Implementation>>Input Device
Wireless Finger Ring
 Detection of finger-tip typing
 Wireless Link
 Block Diagrams
Chording METHOD
z Wearable Computer Implementation>>Input Device
z Wearable Computer Implementation>>Input Device
z Wearable Computer Implementation>>Input Device
z Wearable Computer Implementation>>Input Device
z >>Wearable Computer Implementation>>Output Device
z >>Wearable Computer Implementation>>Output Device
z >>Wearable Computer Implementation>>Output Device
z >>Wearable Computer Implementation>>Output Device
z >>Wearable Computer Networking
z >>Wearable Computer Networking
z >>Wearable Computer Networking
z >>Wearable Computer Networking
z Wearable Computing & Ubiquitous Computing
Properties and Problems with Ubiquitous Computing
 Privacy issues
 Difficulty with personalized information:
 Properties and Problem with Wearable Computing
 Localized information:
 Localized control
 Resource management:
 The Combination-Hive and Locust Swarm
 A General Scenario
z Wearable Computing & Ubiquitous Computing
z Wearable Computing & Ubiquitous Computing
Properties and Problem with Wearable Computing
z Wearable Computing & Ubiquitous Computing
Properties and Problem with Wearable Computing
 1. Localized information:
 2. Localized control
z Wearable Computing & Ubiquitous Computing
Properties and Problem with Wearable Computing
 Resource management:
z Wearable Computing & Ubiquitous Computing
The Combination-Hive and Locust Swarm
Why Hive?
 Agents are Autonomous
 Agents are proactive
 Agents can interact
 Agents can be mobile
What is Locust Swarm?
z Wearable Computing & Ubiquitous Computing
Reaping the best of both worlds
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#14
26-04-2011, 11:43 AM

Presented by:
Jerin George


.pptx   wearable computerSeminar-Presentation.pptx (Size: 3.71 MB / Downloads: 101)
Wearable computers
History

The concept of wearable computing was first brought by Steve Mann with the invention of ‘Wear Comp’ in 1979.
In 1980 the consumer camcorder, miniature CRT’s etc. were developed.
Operational modes
Constancy

The computer runs continuously, and is ‘always ready’ to interact with user.
Augmentation
Is based on the notion that computing is NOT the primary task.
Mediation
Like hand held devices wearable can encapsulate us
Solitude
Privacy
Attributes
UNRESTRICTIVE to the user
Ambulatory, mobile, roving “you can do other things while using it”, e.g. you can type while jogging, etc.
OBSERVABLE by the user
It can get your attention continuously if you want it to
CONTROLLABLE by the user
It means responsive to the user
COMMUNICATIVE to others
It can be used as a communications medium when you want it to.
Properties
Constant
It’s always on and always running.
Personal
Human and computer are inextricably intertwined.
Prosthetic
You can adapt to it so that it act as a true extension of mind and body.
Private
Others can’t observe or control it unless you let them.
Expressive
Allows the wearable to be expressive through the medium
Digital Fabric
Silk organza, a unique fabric that has been used to make clothes in India at least a century
Ideal for computerized clothing
As it is made with two fibers that make it conductive to electricity.
Silk Thread
Copper Foil
Digital Fabric
Copper is a very good conductor of electricity.
Copper foil gives the silk organza the ability to conduct electricity.
Some microprocessor manufactures has began to use copper to speed up microprocessors.
The metallic yarn is prepared just like cloth core telephone wire
These metallic yarns can withstand high temperatures; the yarn can be sewn or embroidered using industrial machinery.
Use of an insulating material to coat or support the fabric or to reduce problems.
Digital Fabric
At Georgia Tech, researchers have developed another kind of thread named as plastic optical fibers and other specialty fibers woven into the fabric.
These optical and electrical conductive fibers will allow the wear comp to wirelessly communicate with the other devices.
Rational Details
Software

The commonly used operating system is WOS (wear comp OS).
Red hat and GNU Linux can be run in close coordination as an operating system
Various software mostly GNU freeware such as GIMP as well as various calendar and planning programs can be run on a wearable computer.
Rational Details
Hardware

Price of wearable computer is tend to be in thousands of dollars, whether its old or new.
Alternative approach is to assemble a low cost system.
Eg. - You can buy an old computer that has NTSC output and connect to small CRT from camera.
Rational Details
Display

A major part of the total cost of the wearable computer system lies in its display unit.
Mainly two types of display are used.
Common portable LCD display
Head mounted display
Common portable LCD display
FEATURES:
High resolution colour video image.
Image that appears in the person's line of sight.
Viewing angle comparable to viewing a 26" monitor from 2, meters (6.5 Feet) away.
Ultra light-weight, no major disturbance in the eyesight.
Head mounted display
FEATURES:
A typical HMD has either one or two small displays with lenses and semi-transparent mirrors embedded in a helmet, eye-glasses or visor.
The display units are miniaturized and may include CRT, LCDs, Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCos), or OLED
Rational Details
Key board

You can connect micro switches that enable you to plug directly into the keyboard port.
A combination keyboard fits in the palm of your hand.
Rational Details
Hard Drive

Many hard drives commonly used in laptop computers can withstand operational shock
It is possible to carry enormous amount of hard drive space on your body. Prof Martin (of M.I.T) has 36GB hard drive installed in his wear. One of his waist bag systems contains 2GB of hard drive space and 512MB of RAM.
Rational Details
Batteries
Low cost batteries

Early versions of wear comp used lead acid batteries. Lead acid batteries are typically available surplus. For constant application you will want to obtain at least two 12 Volt batteries.
High performance batteries
Li-Ion camcorder batteries are commercially available. A minimum of two batteries is required for constant running 12 Volt batteries.
Rational Details
Voltage Regulator
These are used in order to keep the voltage of Li-Ion batteries constant as output voltage drops significantly, with usage from a full charge. Another reason for constant voltage is that various components of Wear Comp require different voltage.
Applications
MediWear

It closely monitors the wearer's body functions and the moment that any one of them becomes critical, the pre-defined medical unit is notified remotely. It is expected that the transmitted signals are internal and they are relayed on to an external.
Applications
Smart eyeglasses

It would not appreciably obstruct the wearer's vision, or otherwise be encumbering, so that, for example, the wearer could play a competitive game of volleyball wearing the apparatus. It would not look unsightly. Ideally it would not be visible.
Applications
Smart shoes

Inside the shoes there is an array of transducers that picks up the impact upon the ground. The shoes supplies the personal ­worn computer with information about how the feet are impacting on the ground, and this information could be used to control an external process in an intimate manner.
Applications
Wear Cam

Wear Cam is a simple apparatus for effortless capture, display, processing and transmission of visual Imagery. Wear Cam viewfinder goes beyond merely setting the camera correctly.
Applications
Safety net

A further improvement to the personal safety device includes the use of biosensors where the quotient of heart rate divided by foot step rate.
Personal Safety Network ("Safety Net") In the future, groups of individuals connected together wirelessly might create a virtual small-town global neighborhood watch to reduce crime.
Sensors, which measure heart rate, respiration, foot step rate, and even carry the entire medical history.
Applications
Military Applications

The smart shirt project and implimentation at Georgia Tech was originally financed by the navy, beginning in 1999
The shirt was being designed for soldiers in combat, so that medical personnel could find the exact location of a bullet wound.
A light signal is continually being sent from one end of the optical fiber to a receiver on the other end. This fiber is also connected to a personal status monitor worn on the hip.
If the light from the emitter does not reach the receiver inside the monitor, this signals that the soldier has been shot. The light signal then bounces back to the point of penetration, which helps doctors to find the exact location of the bullet wound.
Advantages
Portability.
Hands-free use.
Comfortable.
Always on for the task it is designed.
Quick to access.
Fashionable.
Functions of clothing will be very personal.
The reuse of clothes will be important (prolonged life cycle).
Disadvantages
Equipment can be heavy.
Expensive.
Some Wearable Computers can consist of a lot of wiring.
Can cause irritation in heat.
Side-Effects such as Headaches.
It may become easier to get data on an individual if the item is lost / stolen.
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09-05-2011, 03:35 PM


.ppt   Wearable new.ppt (Size: 7.93 MB / Downloads: 133)
Wearable Computers
Purpose
Computer subsumed into personal space of the user, controlled by the user, and has both operational and interactional constancy
Always on and accessible, body/mind extension
Different from wrist watches, PDAs, wearable radios etc :– they are fully functional computers
Need :- today’s computers are not ‘personal’
A person's "personal" computer should be always available, and interact with the user based on context of the situation
The Early Days
Steve Mann :- Inventor of wearable computer
1st wearable computer built in 1979,during the pre-laptop, early computer era
Barely usable :- Absence of lightweight, rugged and fast processors and display devices
Eyeglass mounted multimedia computer developed during 1980s
Powered by the MIT
Operational Modes
Constancy: The computer runs continuously, and is ‘always ready’ to interact with user.
Augmentation: computer should serve to enlarge the intellect, or enlarge the senses.
Mediation: computer can encapsulate us
Solitude: allow us to block out material entering the encapsulated space
Privacy: allows us to block or modify information leaving the encapsulated space
While units of wearable computing may use mixture of these concepts, augmentation is more general
Attributes
Unmonopolizing of the user's attention :- You can attend to other matters while using the apparatus
Unrestrictive to the user: You can do other things while using it
Observable by the user: Always available. You can use it when you want.
Controllable by the user: You control it. Responsive to the user.
Attentive to the environment: Environmentally aware, multimodal, multi-sensory.
Communicative to others: used as communication medium by the user when required
Properties
Constant: always ready. May have “sleep modes’ but never “dead” .
Personal: human and computer are inextricably intertwined.
Prosthetic: true extension of mind and body.
Private: others can’t observe or control it unless you let them.
Assertive: There can be a barrier to prohibition or to requests by others for removal during times when you wish such a barrier.
Expressive:Acts as a direct communication media or assists communication
Rational Details
Software
Wear Comp OS (WOS) commonly used.
Free and open source softwares and OSes generally used – free and customizable.
Hardware
Head Mount Display (HMD)
Camera
Audio, i.e., speaker and microphone.
Input Device, like keyboard
The computer itself
The network connection
Head Mounted Display (HMD)
Small screen, typically covering one of your eyes.
Works like an ordinary monitor, providing an image floating in the air in front of you.
LCD or TFT technology.
Used to be a real CRT in the old days.
Head Mounted Display (HMD)
Transparent displays allows augmented reality, where virtual information overlaps the real world.
Opaque displays are less sensitive to the background noise.
Present state of the art:- smallest and advanced.
Camera
Any small camera:- ordinary web camera or custom made camera.
Should be placed suitably:-
Head, follows user’s gaze.
Shoulder, more stable.
Input Device
Keyboard
Virtual keyboard using EPT.
Chording keyboard
FrogPad.
Arm Strapped Keyboard
Mouse
Wearable fingertip mouse
Input Device
Gestures
The Gesture pendant
Uses hand movement for controlling household devices.
Uses fingers for dialing numbers
Voice recognition
Suitable at times, but not as a generic solution for everything.
Multi-modal interfaces
Combining several types of input e.g. voice and gestures.
Complex to design an efficient multi-modal interface
The Computer Itself
Heart and brain of the wearable
Anything small but powerful enough.
PC-104 was the first of the kind, developed in 1987.
Xybernaut Corporation provides wearable/mobile computing hardware, software and services
Giant in the field.
Produces Atigo tablet PC, Poma wearable computer, and the MA-V (Mobile Assistant) wearable computer.
Network connection
Benefits of having a network
Access to the Internet.
Communication.
Wireless network connection used:- reduces additional burden of wiring
Bluetooth, IR, GPRS or UMTS (3G) connections are commonly used.
Powering the Wearable
Power is a significant problem in the current state of wearable computer development.
All the devices used consume power.
Batteries used in the past and in present :- they never last enough
Burden of recharging after use.
Typical power consumption ~ 5W
Powering the Wearable
Examples of human power availability
Body heat, 0.6 – 4.8W (wetsuit clothes)
Breath, 0.4 – 2.5W (pressure mask)
Blood pressure, 0.2W (turbine)
Limb motion, 0.3 – 1.5W (pulleys)
Finger motion, 0.019W (keyboard typing)
Walking, 5 – 8W (shoe generator)
Power generated while walking could be harnessed to power the wearable.
technique is in budding phase now .
Batteries of the Wearable
Low cost batteries (early versions)
lead acid batteries
two 12 Volt batteries required for constant applications
Inexpensive but bulky
High performance batteries (now used)
Li-Ion batteries used
minimum of four batteries is required
Voltage Regulator needed
to keep the voltage of Li-Ion batteries constant
Various components of the wearable require different voltage
Interconnecting Gadgets
Connecting with wires :- cumbersome
Wireless :- comfortable, but easier to eavesdrop on.
Solution:- Integrate into the special clothes weaved using special fabric that have electrical conductive paths in it.
Silk Organza developed by MIT conducts electricity.
It consists of two types of fibers
First fibers is an ordinary silk thread
Second is a copper foil wrapped silk thread.
Copper foil gives conductive properties.
Interconnecting Gadgets
Metallic yarn prepared using silk organza.
This yarn can be sewn or embroidered.
A strip of the fabric would basically function like a ribbon of cable
Insulating material used to coat the fabric to avoid short-circuits.
Interconnecting Gadgets
Fabric is cut into suitable shape,.
Electronic components, like resistors, capacitors and coils are directly sewn to the fabric.
Other electronic devices can be snapped into the fabric by using some kind of gripper snaps, which pierce the yarn to create an electrical contact.
These devices can then easily removed in order to clean the fabric.
Real Life Applications
Augmented reality (AR)
Term for a live direct or indirect view of a physical real-world environment whose elements are merged with virtual, computer generated images, creating a mixed reality.
Achieved by using HMD
MediWear
It closely monitors the wearer's body functions and the moment that any one of them becomes critical, the pre-defined medical unit is notified remotely.
Real Life Applications
Smart shoes
Inside the shoes there is an array of transducers that picks up the impact upon the ground.
Pass to the network the user’s speed and information about the terrain
Safety net
Groups of individuals connected together wirelessly creating a virtual small-town global neighborhood
aims to reduce crime.
Military Applications
Smart shirt
Used to find the exact location of a bullet wound
Capabilities
Portable, flexible, always accessible, private, convenient, fashionable.
Enhanced communication.
Used to recognize a person in a high alerted area such as an airport.
Unlikely to be dropped or lost .
Able to use wearable computers to complete daily tasks such as a computer which tracks the movements and habits of a person.
Can be used by surgeons (attached to their arms), this can save time as the surgeons can look at the wearable for information, this will help improve the efficiency of an operation.
Limitations
Constraints of any wireless network
Limited bandwidth.
Security.
Reliability – subject to interference.
Speed - ~ 1-108 Mbit/s, reasonably slow.
can cause interference in other devices.
Other tough issues
Technical - HMD screen still low resolution, no seamless mechanism for I/O.
Social - privacy and security.
Economical – market still small, high cost
Political - access rights and spectrum ownership.
Conclusion
Wearables today
technology does not allow anyone to carry enough computing power on oneself.
uncommon, expensive, advanced wearables are very difficult to use.
Conventional interaction devices like keyboard that degrade performance are used.
Wearables tomorrow
Integrate user’s information with his/her work environment.
User-friendly, smaller, lighter, smarter.
Seamless I/O.
One can wear without it even being noticed.
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