wireless power transmission
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15-10-2009, 01:28 PM

wireless power transmission is the process that takes place in any system where electrical energy is transmitted from a power source to an electrical load, without interconnecting wires. Wireless transmission is useful in cases where instantaneous or continuous energy transfer is needed, but interconnecting wires are inconvenient, hazardous, or impossible.While the physics are identical, wireless energy transfer is slightly different from wireless transmission for the purpose of telecommunications (the transferring of information), such as radio, where the signal-to-noise ratio, or the percentage of power received, becomes critical if it is too low to recover the signal successfully. With wireless energy transfer efficiency is the more important parameter.The most common form of wireless power is carried out using induction, followed by electrodynamic induction. Other technologies for wireless power include those based upon microwaves and lasers.
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02-12-2009, 12:02 AM

kindly send me the full report of "wireless power transmission" and "solar power satellite".

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02-12-2009, 04:48 PM

A Wireless System of Energy Transmission is being discussed to find its possibility in actual practices, their advantages, disadvantages and economical consideration. AThis paper by tanauj kumar mandal(tanujmandal@sify.com) mainly concentrated on :
i) The most popular concept known as Tesla Theory,
ii) ii) The microwave power transmission (MPT) called Solar power satellite, and
iii) iii) The highly efficient fibre lasers for wireless power transmission.
Tesla mastered this technology and was the first to try these experiments through Wardenclyffe Tower. The modern ideas are dominated by MPT(microwave power transmission).It has been proven that electrical energy can be propagated around the world between the surface of the Earth and the ionosphere at extreme low frequencies in what is known as the Schumann Cavity.Wireless power transmission is a feasible alternative to the extensive and costly grid of electrical transmission lines used today for electrical power distribution. It is Efficient:efficiency of the transmission can be as high as 96 or 97 per cent, and there are practically no losses.
Biological Impact: The frequencies used may be harmful to biological beings.
Economic impacts: Initial investment is very high.

.pdf   Tesla-Symp06.pdf (Size: 349.43 KB / Downloads: 1,035)
Also see this for lunar wireless power transmission:

.pdf   lunar wireless power transmission.pdf (Size: 672.32 KB / Downloads: 970)

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04-01-2010, 08:19 PM

Much of the power generated is wasted during transmission from power plant generators to the consumer.This
article introduces :
i) The most popular concept
known as Tesla Theory,
ii) The microwave power transmission (MPT) called Solar power satellite, and
iii) The highly efficient fibre lasers for wireless power transmission.

The transmission of power without wires may be a noble alternative for electricity transmission.

The famous Wardenclyffe Tower (Tesla Tower) was
designed and constructed mainly for wireless transmission of
electrical power. Wardenclyffe would permit wireless
transmission and reception across large distances with
negligible losses according to tesla theory. The modern ideas include microwave power transmission (MPT) called Solar power satellite to be built in high earth orbit to collect sunlight and convert that energy into microwaves, then beamed to a very large antenna on earth, the microwaves would be converted into
conventional electrical power.The primary components include a microwave source, a transmitting antenna, and a receiving rectenna.microwave source is a microwave oven magnetron with electronics to control the output power.output of the microwave source connected to a coax-to-waveguide adapter by a coaxial cable.A rectifying antenna called a rectenna receives the
transmitted power and converts the microwave power to DC.
With the use of "high-potential magnifying
transmitter,we can transmit distribute power from a central plant in
unlimited amounts, with a loss not exceeding a small fraction
of one per cent.
The main theories of the past were:
1. Transmission through or along the Earth,
2. Propagation as a result of terrestrial resonances,
3. Coupling to the ionosphere using propagation through
electrified gases

Transmission through or along the Earth:
electrical energy can be
propagated around the world between the surface of the Earth
and the ionosphere at extreme low frequencies in what is
known as the Schumann Cavity. We can resonate and deliver power
via the Schumann Cavity to any point on Earth.

fibre lasers
This method is similar to similar to microwaves concept but lasers emit energy at
frequencies much higher that microwaves.

using directional ultrasound
Here, transmitting device has a set of
ultrasound transducers forming an ultrasound transducer
array and a recieving device recieves the power.

-eliminate the cables, towers, and substations
-reduce the cost of electrical energy used by the
-remote ares unconnected by the power cables will be benefited.
transmission and distribution loss.
-High Transmission Integrity and Low Loss. The efficiency of the
transmission can be as high as 96 or 97 per cent.

-Biological impact: its possible biological
effects were criticised. Calculating the circulating reactive power, it was
found that the frequency is very small and biologically compatible.

-Economic Impact:The concept looks to be costly initially. Only private, dispersed receiving stations will be
needed.a single resonant energy
receiver is required, which may eventually be built into
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03-04-2010, 11:05 PM

Wireless Transmission of Electric Energy

Presented By:
Rajeev Lochan Sahu EE200117348

Traditional Method Of Power Transmission
Need For Wireless System Of Energy Transmission
To minimize losses due to resistance of wire
To make the system more efficient about 90-94%
To eliminate inefficient & costly cables, towers & substations
To import & export electrical power internationally

Advanced Technology Of Transmission
Different Theories proposed are:
Transmission through or along the Earth
Propagation as a result of Terrestrial Resonance
Coupling to the Ionosphere using propagation through electrified gases
First theory given by:Fritz Lowenstein
Later two : Dr. Nikola Tesla
Coupling to the Ionosphere using propagation through electrified gases

Observation by Dr. Tesla:
Air under a partial evacuated vacuum can conduct high current better than Copper wires.
If transmitter is elevated to a level where air pressure is about 75 to 130mm & an excitation of Mega volts is applied, then the air will serve as a conductor for production of current.
The current can also be transmitted through air.

Propagation as a result of Terrestrial Resonance
Earth behaves like an electric circuit & atmosphere acts like a weak conductor.
If there were no sources of charge, the existing electric charge would diffuse away in about 10 minutes.
There is a cavity defined by the surface of the Earth & the inner edge of the ionosphere 55 Kms up.At any moment the total charge residing in this cavity is 500,000Coulombs.

Schumann Resonance & Tesla Resonance
Practical Demonstration of Wireless Transmission

About the Plant:
Has a full size,51feet diameter,air core,RF resonating coil which is the largest part of the system.
130feet tower,insulated 30feet above ground.
Has a capacity of over 600 Kilowatts.
The successful resonating of the Schumann Cavity and wireless transmission of power on a small scale will require a second phase of engineering i.e.the design of receiving stations.
The third phase is further tests
The fourth phase is the improvements.
Total cost from proof of principle to commercial prototype is expected to total $3million.

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.ppt   Wireless_Transmission_Of_Electric_Energy.ppt (Size: 574.5 KB / Downloads: 333)
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23-09-2010, 03:13 PM

hello, pls send me the information that what work has done in this field
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08-10-2010, 11:24 AM

This article is presented by:
Gary L. Peterson
wireless power transmission

It is possible that Nikola Tesla is best known for his remarkable statements regarding the wireless transmission of electrical power. His first efforts towards this end started in 1891 and were intended to simply "disturb the electrical equilibrium in the nearby portions of the earth... to bring into operation in any way some instrument." In other words the object of his experiments was simply to produce effects locally and detect them at a distance. By 1899 the electrical potential of his transmitter had increased to the point that more room was needed for the sake of safety. This and other considerations led him to temporarily shift his wireless experiments to a location just outside of Colorado Springs.
At this Colorado "Experimental Station" Tesla had some early success in wireless power transmission. One photograph shows that "a small incandescent lamp was lighted by means of a resonant circuit grounded on one end, all the energy being drawn through the earth [from a nearby transmitter]." In 1907 he even went as far as to make this statement:
"... to make the little filament glow, the entire surface of the planet, two hundred million square miles, must be strongly electrified. This calls for peculiar electrical activities, hundreds of times greater than those involved in the lighting of an arc lamp through the human body [a far more spectacular demonstration]. What impresses him most, however, is the knowledge that the little lamp will spring into the same brilliancy anywhere on the globe, there being no appreciable diminution of the effect with the increase of distance from the transmitter."
It is not at all clear that Tesla was referring to effects produced by his large Colorado transmitter. It is quite possible that he was writing about what he felt could be done with an even bigger transmitter such as the one that he was developing in New York. If the Wardenclyffe communications facility had been finished, the 187 foot tall mushroom-shaped tower would have permanently housed a set of large coils including an immense helical resonator that would have served as the main transmitting element. Directly below the wooden tower there was a 120 foot shaft where deep underground Tesla had installed a radial array of iron pipes that served as a connection between the oscillator and the earth.
The Wardenclyffe plant was a major milestone in Tesla's researches into the application of alternating electrical currents to wireless communications and power transmission, an effort which drew a considerable amount of Tesla's attention during the period between 1891 and 1912. In the article "The Future of the Wireless Art" which appeared in Wireless Telegraphy & Telephony, 1908, Tesla made the following statement regarding the Wardenclyffe project and implimentation on which he was then working:
"As soon as completed, it will be possible for a business man in New York to dictate instructions, and have them instantly appear in type at his office in London or elsewhere. He will be able to call up, from his desk, and talk to any telephone subscriber on the globe, without any change whatever in the existing equipment. An inexpensive instrument, not bigger than a watch, will enable its bearer to hear anywhere, on sea or land, music or song, the speech of a political leader, the address of an eminent man of science, or the sermon of an eloquent clergyman, delivered in some other place, however distant. In the same manner any picture, character, drawing, or print can be transferred from one to another place. Millions of such instruments can be operated from but one plant of this kind. More important than this, however, will be the transmission of power, without wires, which will be shown on a scale large enough to carry conviction. These few indications will be sufficient to show that the wireless art offers greater possibilities than any invention or discovery heretofore made, and if the conditions are favorable, we can expect with certitude that in the next few years wonders will be wrought by its application."
In the end, Tesla was never able to complete the Wardenclyffe plant, although he was able to conduct some performance tests. Nevertheless, if the above stated predictions were to be true, an interesting feature of Tesla's World System for global communications, had it gone into full operation, would have been its capacity to provide small but usable quantities of electrical power at the location of the receiving circuits. He predicted that further advances would have permitted the wireless transmission of industrial amounts of electrical energy with minimal losses to any point on the earth's surface. Had he been able to complete the prototype station on Long Island and use it to demonstrate the feasibility of wireless power transmission then a plan would have been implemented for the construction of a pilot plant for this larger system at Niagara Falls, site of the world's first commercial three phase AC power plant
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20-10-2010, 10:38 AM

The technology used for wireless power transmission is known as witricity. Wireless power transmission is not a new idea, Nikola Tesla proposed theories of wireless power transmission in the late 1800s and
early 1900s. Tesla's work was impressive, but it did not immediately lead to wide spread practical methods for wireless power transmission. Since then many researchers have developed several techniques for moving electricity over long distances without wires. Some exist only as theories or prototypes,but others are already in use. In 2006 researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology led by Marine Soljacic discovered an efficient way to transfer power between coils separated by a few meters. They have dubbed this technology as witricity. Witricity is based upon coupled resonant objects. Two resonant objects of the same resonant frequency tend to exchange energy efficiently, while not interchanging the surroundings. The researchers demonstrate the ability to transfer 60W with approximately 40% efficiency over distance in excess of 2 meters. Currently the project and implimentation is looking for power
transmission in the range of 100watts. As witricity is in the development
stage, lots of work is to be done in improving the range of power transmission and efficiency.

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.ppt   WIRELESS POWER.ppt (Size: 2.37 MB / Downloads: 209)

The recent trend for efficient transmission of power is the “WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM”. This paper expose a new method for wireless power transmission using electromagnetic waves that comprises a transmitter and receiver in which we get a transmission efficiency of 95%.

1.SHORT DISTANCE METHOD: These method can reach at most a few centimeters. The principle beyond

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.doc   Lasers_for_Wireless_Power_Transmission.doc (Size: 71.5 KB / Downloads: 70)
Lasers for Wireless Power Transmission
The aim of the project and implimentation is to transmit power energized from lunar through laser.
In this project and implimentation we the team had implemented a lunar-solar tracking system. The implementation is of 2 - section.
Section 1:
The working principle of this part is used to observe the lunar rays which generate an electrical energy. This energy is then converted into light energy by groups of laser which is capable for long distance travel. This is lighted with electronic sources. The solar cell is automated with stepper motor for tracking light density. The density is sensed by sensor (LDR) the signal is then transmitted to microcontroller and controls the stepper motor depending the light density.
Section 2:
The light energy is then converted into electrical energy by photovoltaic panels. The cell is used to observe the rays and is converted into electrical energy. The ELE energy produced is then boosted by boost converter which is then used for different power requirements.
Solar cells are placed in space which is capable for observing booth suns energy in day and lunar energy during night. Because sun moves in a elliptical path. So few hours the sunlight falls into the cell. During the rest of the hours the percentage of Sunlight, which falls into the cell, is very less. This results in less amount of energy generation.
To overcome this problem we can construct a model where we can place the solar cell in it and which can move according light density. To track the density, this is achieved with the help of light intensity sensors. The sensors are fixed into the model in an elliptical path. So depending on the light the sensors output differs. So according position the solar panel, this results in good efficiency. (i.e.).the solar cell can produce energy by tracking the sunlight with the help of sensors and mechanical model.
Solar power technology is not a recent advent; in fact, it dates back over 100 years to the industrial revolution. Solar energy is the mother of most renewable energies on earth. The sun powers natural cycles on earth like the wind, water flow and plant growth.
But the sun is also such a reliable source of heat and light that we sometimes take it for granted. Generations have used glass and other materials and structures to capture and magnify the sun’s energy and these systems have gradually evolved to form the basis of mature techniques that are used today to harness solar energy.
Solar panels (photovoltaic panels) convert sunlight into electricity and can be placed on the roof of a house, or nearby, to gain the greatest access to the sun. They require virtually no maintenance. It can generate electricity without any waste or pollution. Solar panels have no moving parts so they are very reliable and have a long life span. Solar panels are relatively easy to install and are very low maintenance.
These days, solar panels are becoming increasingly efficient due to improvements in design technology. The use of solar panels allows us to generate clean, renewable electricity to power remote appliances, communities, or even for high power resources.
Section 1:
The hardware of the thesis built by power supply, micro controller, solar panel, stepper motor, LDR, laser beams.
Section 2:
The hardware of the thesis built by power supply, micro controller, converter board, solar panel, battery and a lamp load.
The solar panel is to generate the electric power of course the power generated by the panel is in milli voltage (mV) and milliamps (mA). There is need to boost the voltage and the current generated by the solar panel. The output of the solar panel circuit is given has an input to the converter board i.e. amplifier.
The converter board used here for the purpose of boosting. This board does two function one to sent the boosted signal to the battery and also to the ON the load.
The converter board receives the signal i.e. voltage and the current from the solar panel, it acts an input to the converter board. The converter board boosts the received signal from milli volts (mV) to volts (V) and the milli currents (mA) to Amps (A).
The converter board sent the boosted signal to ON the load and to the battery. So the load is ON by the solar energy. The use of battery is to give the backup supply to the converter board in case of the supply failure.
The battery is charged by the solar panel output via converter board. The lamp load keeps on in ON condition even in the case of the supply failure for emergency using a SOLAR PANEL…
Low-power lasers are widely used today for telecommunication as well as for low-cost laser pointers and laser beam lights. High-power lasers are employed in surgery, and to cut, weld, and heat metal. More recently, a ground-based pulsed carbon dioxide laser has boosted research "light craft to altitudes higher than Goddard's first rocket.
Lasers are now being considered of wireless power transmission, propulsion and space exploration.
A potential application of particular interest is the use of lasers to beam power from solar collection space to other locations, in space and out he Earth's surface. The concept of space solar power systems for terrestrial power delivery was first proposed by Glaser in 1968 and studied extensively by NASA, the Department of Energy, and others in the 1970s and 1980s. It was recently revisited by NASA.
These space solar power concepts requirements is for transmitting the electric power that is converted from solar energy by the space-based power
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please help me in this topic...
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.doc   POWER.doc (Size: 44 KB / Downloads: 60)

We cannot imagine the world without electric power. Generally the power is transmitted through wires. This paper describes an original idea to eradicate the hazardous usage of electrical wires which involve lot of confusion in particularly organizing them.’
Imagine a future in which wireless power transfer is feasible: cell phones, household robots, mp3 players, laptop computers and other portable electronics capable of charging themselves without ever being plugged in, freeing us from that final, ubiquitous power wire. Some of these devices might not even need their bulky batteries to operate. This paper includes the techniques of transmitting power without using wires with an efficiency of about 95% with non-radiative methods. Due to which it does not effect the environment surrounding. These techniques includes resonating inductive coupling in sustainable moderate range.
The coupling consists of an inductor along with a capacitor with its own resonating frequency. In any system of coupled resonators there often exists a so-called “strongly coupled” regime of operation. If one ensures to operate in that regime in a given system, the energy transfer can be very efficient . Another technique includes transfer of power through microwaves using rectennas.This is particularly suitable for long range distances ranging kilometers. With this we can avoid the confusion and danger of having long, hazardous and tangled wiring.
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17-03-2011, 03:16 PM

Presented by
Siddharth Patel

.pptx   wirelesspowertransmission-1 - Copy.pptx (Size: 1.06 MB / Downloads: 83)
Wireless Power Transmission
What is WPT?
 The transmission of energy from one place to another without using wires
 Conventional energy transfer is using wires
 But, the wireless transmission is made possible by using various technologies
Why not wires?
 As per studies, most electrical energy transfer is through wires.
 Most of the energy loss is during transmission
◦ On an average, more than 30%
◦ In India, it exceeds 40%
◦ Why WPT?
 Reliable
 Efficient
 Fast
 Low maintenance cost
 Can be used for short-range or long-range.
 Nikola Tesla in late 1890s
 Pioneer of induction techniques
 His vision for “World Wireless System”
 The 187 feet tall tower to broadcast energy
 All people can have access to free energy
 Due to shortage of funds, tower did not operate
 Tesla was able to transfer energy from one coil to another coil
 He managed to light 200 lamps from a distance of 40km
 The idea of Tesla is taken in to research after 100 years by a team led by Marin Soljačić from MIT. The project and implimentation is named as ‘WiTricity’.
Energy Coupling
 The transfer of energy
◦ Magnetic coupling
◦ Inductive coupling
 Simplest Wireless Energy coupling is a transformer
Types and Technologies of WPT
 Near-field techniques
◦ Inductive Coupling
◦ Resonant Inductive Coupling
◦ Air Ionization
 Far-field techniques
◦ Microwave Power Transmission (MPT)
◦ LASER power transmission
 Inductive coupling
 Primary and secondary coils are not connected with wires.
 Energy transfer is due to Mutual Induction
 Resonance Inductive Coupling(RIC)
 Combination of inductive coupling and resonance
 Resonance makes two objects interact very strongly
 Inductance induces current
 How resonance in RIC?
 Coil provides the inductance
 Capacitor is connected parallel to the coil
 Energy will be shifting back and forth between magnetic field surrounding the coil and electric field around the capacitor
 Radiation loss will be negligible
 An example
 WiTricity
 Based on RIC
 Led by MIT’s Marin Soljačić
 Energy transfer wirelessly for a distance just more than 2m.
 Coils were in helical shape
 No capacitor was used
 Efficiency achieved was around 40%
 WiTricity (contd…)
 WiTricity… Some statistics
 Used frequencies are 1MHz and 10MHz
 At 1Mhz, field strengths were safe for human
 At 10MHz, Field strengths were more than ICNIRP standards
 WiTricity now…
 No more helical coils
 Companies like Intel are also working on devices that make use of RIC
 Researches for decreasing the field strength
 Researches to increase the range
 RIC vs. inductive coupling
 RIC is highly efficient
 RIC has much greater range than inductive coupling
 RIC is directional when compared to inductive coupling
 RIC can be one-to-many. But usually inductive coupling is one-to-one
 Devices using RIC technique are highly portable
Air Ionization
 Toughest technique under near-field energy transfer techniques
 Air ionizes only when there is a high field
 Needed field is 2.11MV/m
 Natural example: Lightening
 Not feasible for practical implementation
Advantages of near-field techniques
 No wires
 No e-waste
 Need for battery is eliminated
 Efficient energy transfer using RIC
 Harmless, if field strengths under safety levels
 Maintenance cost is less
 Distance constraint
 Field strengths have to be under safety levels
 Initial cost is high
 In RIC, tuning is difficult
 High frequency signals must be the supply
 Air ionization technique is not feasible
 Far-field energy transfer
 Radiative
 Needs line-of-sight
LASER or microwave
 Aims at high power transfer
 Tesla’s tower was built for this
Microwave Power Transfer(MPT)
 Transfers high power from one place to another. Two places being in line of sight usually
 Steps:
◦ Electrical energy to microwave energy
◦ Capturing microwaves using rectenna
◦ Microwave energy to electrical energy
 AC can not be directly converted to microwave energy
 AC is converted to DC first
 DC is converted to microwaves using magnetron
 Transmitted waves are received at rectenna which rectifies, gives DC as the output
DC is converted back to AC
LASER transmission
 LASER is highly directional, coherent
 Not dispersed for very long
 But, gets attenuated when it propagates through atmosphere
 Simple receiver
◦ Photovoltaic cell
 Cost-efficient
Solar Power Satellites (SPS)
 To provide energy to earth’s increasing energy need
 To efficiently make use of renewable energy i.e., solar energy
 SPS are placed in geostationary orbits
 Solar energy is captured using photocells
 Each SPS may have 400 million photocells
 Transmitted to earth in the form of microwaves/LASER
 Using rectenna/photovoltaic cell, the energy is converted to electrical energy
 Efficiency exceeds 95% if microwave is used.
 Stands for rectifying antenna
 Consists of mesh of dipoles and diodes
 Converts microwave to its DC equivalent
 Usually multi-element phased array
Rectenna in US
 Rectenna in US receives 5000MW of power from SPS
 It is about one and a half mile long
Other project and implimentations
 Alaska’21
 Grand Bassin
 Hawaii
Advantages of far-field energy transfer
 Efficient
 Easy
 Need for grids, substations etc are eliminated
 Low maintenance cost
 More effective when the transmitting and receiving points are along a line-of-sight
 Can reach the places which are remote
Disadvantages of far-field energy transfer
 Radiative
 Needs line-of-sight
 Initial cost is high
 When LASERs are used,
◦ conversion is inefficient
◦ Absorption loss is high
 When microwaves are used,
◦ interference may arise
◦ FRIED BIRD effect
 Near-field energy transfer
◦ Electric automobile charging
 Static and moving
◦ Consumer electronics
◦ Industrial purposes
 Harsh environment
 Far-field energy transfer
◦ Solar Power Satellites
◦ Energy to remote areas
◦ Can broadcast energy globally (in future)
 Transmission without wires- a reality
 Efficient
 Low maintenance cost. But, high initial cost
 Better than conventional wired transfer
 Energy crisis can be decreased
 Low loss
 In near future, world will be completely wireless

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21-03-2011, 12:28 PM

Long Distance Wireless Power Transmission
Simple wireless power transmission works because of the principles of magnetic resonance and magnetic induction. This power transmission system relies on two coils in range with each other and resonating at the same frequency. The coils need to be in range because the magnetic field of the source must be strong enough for the receiving coils to induce current flow. Matching resonating frequency is also needed to enable further transmission of power through magnetic induction. Modifications or an entirely new set of principles are, however, required in order to enable wireless power transmission to supply power over large distances.
Long-Distance Wireless Power Transmission Experiment
One of the examples of long-distance wireless power transmission is a 1980 experiment by Communications Research Center in Canada. The research center used a small unmanned airplane designed for communications relay and capable of being powered from a power beamed from the station for this experiment. The experiment managed to prove that aircrafts can fly (2 km diameter flight path with an altitude of 21 km) for as long as several months without the need to land by using power beamed from a distant station.
Long-Distance Wireless Power Transmission Options
Microwave Energy
This long-distance wireless power transmission option necessitates the use of a large microwave transmitter on the ground. The airplane in the experiment had to fly in a circular path because it always had to be within range of the ground-based transmitter. This enabled it to receive the microwave energy through a rectenna or disc shaped rectifying antenna receiver that converts microwave energy into DC electricity.
Light Energy
Another option for wireless power transmission is NASA’s infrared power transmission system that is capable of powering an airplane using an infrared laser that powers the photovoltaic cells located on the airplane’s skin. These photovoltaic cells convert infrared energy to electricity. This also requires that the device being powered be always within sight of the transmitter.
Basic Principles
One of the central devices that will be used in long-distance wireless power transmission technology is the rectenna or rectifying antenna composed of dipole antennas connected to semiconductor diodes. These diodes direct the electrons produced from the infrared or microwave energy to the circuitry on the rectenna that distributes the electrons to the system.
Future Applications
This technology opened up the possibility of constructing power stations on the moon. These power stations will be capable of transmitting power to earth using microwave energy. These microwave energy would then be converted into electricity using a vast array of rectenna receivers on the earth.
Moon-based power stations, however, would require maintenance and supervision in order to be sustainable. Satellite networks would also be needed to transmit microwave energies to the parts of the earth that are not at the direct line of sight of the moon’s power stations. There’s also protest against constant microwave exposure.
Even with all these challenges that face wide-scale application of this new technology, long-distance wireless power transmission is still being considered as a next-generation power transmission system for specialized applications.
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