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Wireless Sensor Networks

Technology Overview

The individual nodes that constitute a wireless sensor network are generally small in size and use power-efficient batteries to extend their operational longevity. Depending on its function, each node has a sensor board that facilitates the detection and measurement of heat, vibrations, air-pressure and magnetic fields (among other things). The motes developed at UC Berkeley are a typical example of such devices. Motes have a range of about 100 feet and feature a 7Mhz processor, 4Kb of RAM, 128Kb of programmable memory space, and utilize a ChipCon CC1000 radio for communication. Due to their deployment simplicity and low cost of about $200 per unit, motes can be distributed in spatially dense configurations within a given area. Motes make use of Tiny OS, an operating system designed from scratch to be as power-efficient as possible. Using less than half the capacity of an AA battery, Tiny OS can effectively run applications for months at a time ) Motes within a given geographic location use networking software to self-assemble into ad-hoc networks, allowing data to be transferred to and from any node in its network, or if necessary, to a proxy (but unauthorized, non-peer/client) in close proximity (like a random cell-phone or laptop), thereby serving as a conduit to a wider network (like the internet). The nodes in wireless sensor networks can be employed to capture data about their geographic environment while seamlessly and instantly communicating that information with surrounding nodes, impervious to temporal or spatial limitation. Wireless sensor networks circumvent the hindrances of collecting information from -2- geographic locations otherwise inaccessible by human beings; from the nether ocean to enemy occupied territory. (Kumar, 2003) Sensor networks are amenable to both civilian and military deployment. In civilian scenarios, sensors used to monitor traffic, pollution, or infrastructure can be positioned by hand. In terms of the most basic military applications, such networks can be used to detect, classify, and track targets in a given territory (other applications will be discussed later). Civilian use of wireless sensor networks range from environmental purposes such as pollution and ecosystem analysis to law-enforcement activity like traffic monitoring and criminal surveillance. In their military context, discommodious or threat-rich environments can be accurately and safely reconnoitered, determining sensor placement a priori is unnecessary as random and widespread sensor deployment can be achieved via aircraft. (Clouqueur, Veradej, Ramanathan, Saluja, 2003) Development Status Sensor technology has made substantial advancements thanks to innovative new research efforts. Some recent developments have been academic in nature, like tracking and monitoring animal migrations, bird habitats, or vineyards, while private-sector developments have included efficiency improvements like condition-based equipment maintenance. There are numerous examples of how wireless sensor networks are currently being used, for instance, biologists at UC Berkeley interested in studying how trees affect the temperature and humidity in their surrounding canopy use a network of trunk-attached motes to monitor the microclimates around the redwood trees in their botanical garden ) -3- One of the most promising research endeavors currently underway is the development of a flexible and interference-resistant communication technology. Instead of being restricted to transmitting and receiving information on a pre-assigned block of spectrum, these radio devices would utilize opportunistic spectrum access. Such systems would facilitate faster and more efficient communication since static allotment would be complemented by instantaneous and opportunistic spectrum access. Sensor nodes utilizing such technology would access unused spectrum, detect, authorize and network surrounding nodes in a manner that reduces inter-node communication interference. (DARPA neXt Generation program) A second area of research worthy of mentioning employs mobile swarm sensor networks to facilitate asset management and multimedia streaming. Mobile swarms are clusters of sensor nodes located in close physical proximity to each other and possess similar mobility patterns. For example, a group of tanks or UAVs could constitute a swarm, presumably equipped with qualitatively superior sensors like hi-res cameras, and longer range radios with higher channel bandwidths than conventional motes. Sensor nodes attached to the swarm members can gather information about that individual member, like location or operating status, but it can also relay data captured by its host to other nodes in the swarm, other mobile swarms, or to a command center through a backbone network or satellite. (Gerla, Xu) There are three primary motivations supporting research and development in the field of wireless sensor networks: academic interest, corporate profit, civil value, and of course, military application. These strong and mutually supportive driving forces suggest a promising future for the technology. Although motes currently cost about $200 per unit, -4- prices have been dropping steadily and are expected to continue falling. Some project and implimentationions suggest that the price will fall to around $10 a piece within the next few years and that the units themselves will shrink in size to about 2 cubic mm. It is safe to assume that the smaller and cheaper these sensors get, the more widely used they will become. Mooreâ„¢s law indicates that in about ten years, devices as small as a mote will have processing and memory capabilities similar to a contemporary network server ) Several challenges faced by sensor technology are worthy of closer scrutiny. Software development, for instance, has been particularly troublesome. This is primarily due to the sensorâ„¢s hardware limitations. Modern sensors like motes suffer from a dearth in processing speed, memory, radio bandwidth, and energy capacity. The problems with processing speed and memory are likely to be resolved in the near future. However, the shortage in bandwidth is due to insufficient energy, and because the energy density of commercial batteries has not changed much in the last ten years, it is unlikely that the challenges posed by battery capacity and radio bandwidth will be overcome anytime soon. Other problems involve developing a way of programming groups of sensors to undertake a variety of different tasks and creating reliable security protocols to ensure network integrity and guard against intrusion and denial-of-service threats Although most challenges are developmental, the technologyâ„¢s inherent potential to violate widely held standards of personal privacy implies that there are also social and legal obstacles to many of its civil applications. Critics are quick to point out the ways such technology can be misused, from tracking ones every movement to remotely -5- accessing personal information. It is not difficult to imagine scenarios whereby one need merely walk by the wrong person in a grocery store to share oneâ„¢s home address, credit card number, or other identity information. These are valid concerns that warrant significant discussion and policy-formulation prior to any civil application. Security Implications In contrast to civilian applications, the military applications of wireless sensor networks must be fully understood, embraced, and implemented without delay. Until now, the United Statesâ„¢ military use of sensor technology has been limited to basic and relatively crude detectors that utilize sensor technology, the Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) system and the AN/GSQ-187 Remote Battlefield Sensor System (REMBASS) are typical examples of such devices. Although technically wireless by definition (in the sense that they do not require external cables to function), these devices do not utilize the technology discussed in this report, nor do they form ad-hoc networks of any kind. These systems are capable of detecting vehicle and personnel activity, but would be incapable of providing potentially critical battlefield information in the form of real-time audio/video data. Wireless sensor networks can also provide a strategic advantage in urban and close-quarter combat situations. For instance, an orbiting UAV could automatically detect friendly forces in the area and transmit aerial reconnaissance data directly to a heads-up display build into the helmets of troops on the ground. If a ground unit required a topographical map of an area, it could transmit the request to a nearby tank or UAV which would then acquire the information from a satellite or databank at a command center. -6- Military integration of this technology will require simultaneous training and tactical adaptation. The ability of its operators to function effectively in an information-rich environment will ultimately depend on the quality of their training. US combat statistics from the first Gulf War indicate that an abundance of battlefield information actually degrades combat performance. Its recipients could not process all the information at every level of command so units in critical need of information had to sift through too much irrelevant data to locate the specific details they required. The confusion caused by information overload illustrates the importance of implementing training and tactical reform measures whenever new technology is introduced. (Davis, 2007) It should be noted that military use of wireless sensor networks need not be limited to information awareness purposes. While not the most creative of individuals, I can think of a few applications omitted from existing literature on the subject. First, integrating wireless sensor networking technology with anti-tank, anti-ship, or anti-personnel mines could facilitate a strategic self-repositioning function. Should an existing mine be detonated, the remaining mines/nodes in the network would detect the detonationâ„¢s location and adjust themselves accordingly, either filling in any gaps in the mine field or congregating in the area of activity. Another application might involve attaching wireless sensor nodes to handheld weapons. Potential benefits could include user-authentication, battlefield restriction (they become unusable when taken out of an AO), or perhaps talking with other weapons in the unit and automatically communicating the need for reinforcements or ammunition re-supply based on usage or environment data. -7- Regardless of application, wireless sensor networks portend significant defense and security implications, necessitating a response in the form of policy formulation. Any military seeking to become or remain a formidable force should carefully consider the strategic opportunities wireless sensor networking technology can provide. Given the cost of military conflict, in terms of both monetary expense and potential casualties, a prudent strategist must pay close attention to technologies that could result in an advantage of any sort. Military history suggests that success is not achieved by those who first acquire a new technology, but by those who accept it and learn to wield it effectively. -8-

References T. Clouqueur, P. Veradej, P. Ramanathan, K. Saluja, Sensor Deployment Strategy for Detection of Targets Traversing a Region, Mobile Networks and Applications, 2003. D. Davis Synthetic Battlespace Test-bed for the Analysis of New Intelligence Sensors, Platforms and Techniques: A National Intelligence Simulation Center, University of Southern California, 2007. M. Gerla, K. Xu, Multimedia Streaming in Large-Scale Sensor Networks with Mobile Swarms, UCLA Computer Science Department. J. Hellerstein, W. Hong, S. Madden, The Sensor Spectrum: Technology, Trends, and Requirements, SIGMOD Record, December 2003. V. Kumar, Sensor: The Atomic Computing Particle, SIGMOD Record, December 2003. XG Working Group, The XG Vision: Request for Comments, DARPA, Version 2.0
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30-07-2010, 08:24 PM

please give full report on wireless sensor network
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Can you upload the complete report.

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08-10-2010, 11:55 AM

Wireless sensor networks: technology, protocols, and applications

A sensor network is an infrastructure comprised of sensing (measuring), computing, and communication elements that gives an administrator the ability to instrument, observe, and react to events and phenomena in a specified environment. The administrator typically is a civil, governmental, commercial, or industrial entity. The environment can be the physical world, a biological system, or an information technology (IT) framework. Network(ed) sensor systems are seen by observers as an important technology that will experience major deployment in the next few years for a plethora of applications, not the least being national security . Typical applications include, but are not limited to, data collection, monitoring, surveillance, and medical telemetry. In addition to sensing, one is often also interested in control and activation. There are four basic components in a sensor network: (1) an assembly of distributed or localized sensors; (2) an interconnecting network (usually, but not always, wireless-based); (3) a central point of information clustering; and (4) a set of computing resources at the central point (or beyond) to handle data correlation, event trending, status querying, and data mining. In this context, the sensing and computation nodes are considered part of the sensor network; in fact, some of the computing
may be done in the network itself. Because of the potentially large quantity of data collected, algorithmic methods for data management play an important role in sensor networks. The computation and communication infrastructure associated with sensor networks is often specific to this environment and rooted in the deviceand application-based nature of these networks. For example, unlike most other settings, in-network processing is desirable in sensor networks; furthermore, node power (and/or battery life) is a key design consideration. The information collected is typically parametric in nature, but with the emergence of low-bit-rate video [e.g., Moving Pictures Expert Group 4 (MPEG-4)] and imaging algorithms, some systems also support these types of media. In this book we provide an exposition of the fundamental aspects of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We cover wireless sensor network technology, applications, communication techniques, networking protocols, middleware, security, and system management. There already is an extensive bibliography of research on this topic; the reader may wish, for example, to consult for an up-todate list. We seek to systematize the extensive paper and conference literature that has evolved in the past decade or so into a cohesive treatment of the topic. The book is targeted to communications developers, managers, and practitioners who seek to understand the benefits of this new technology and plan for its use and deployment.

Background of Sensor Network Technology

Researchers see WSNs as an ‘‘exciting emerging domain of deeply networked systems of low-power wireless motes2 with a tiny amount of CPU and memory, and large federated networks for high-resolution sensing of the environment’’ . Sensors in a WSN have a variety of purposes, functions, and capabilities. The field is now advancing under the push of recent technological advances and the pull of a myriad of potential applications. The radar networks used in air traffic control, the national electrical power grid, and nationwide weather stations deployed over a regular topographic mesh are all examples of early-deployment sensor networks; all of these systems, however, use specialized computers and communication protocols and consequently, are very expensive. Much less expensive WSNs are now being planned for novel applications in physical security, health care, and commerce. Sensor networking is a multidisciplinary area that involves, among others, radio and networking, signal processing, artificial intelligence, database management, systems architectures for operator-friendly infrastructure administration, resource optimization, power management algorithms, and platform technology (hardware and software, such as operating systems) .The applications, networking principles, and protocols for these systems are just beginning to be developed . The near-ubiquity of the Internet, the advancements in wireless and wireline communications technologies, the network build-out (particularly in the wireless case), the developments in IT (such as high-power processors, large random-access memory chips, digital signal processing, and grid computing), coupled with recent engineering advances, are in the aggregate opening the door to a new generation of low-cost sensors and actuators that are capable of achieving high-grade spatial and temporal resolution. The technology for sensing and control includes electric and magnetic field sensors; radio-wave frequency sensors; optical-, electrooptic-, and infrared sensors; radars; lasers; location/navigation sensors; seismic and pressure-wave sensors; environmental parameter sensors (e.g., wind, humidity, heat); and biochemical national security–oriented sensors. Today’s sensors can be described as ‘‘smart’’ inexpensive devices equipped with multiple onboard sensing elements; they are low-cost low-power untethered multifunctional nodes that are logically homed to a central sink node. Sensor devices, or wireless nodes (WNs), are also (sometimes) called motes . A stated commercial goal is to develop complete microelectromechanical systems (MEMSs)–based sensor systems at a volume of 1 mm3 . Sensors are internetworked via a series of multihop short-distance low-power wireless links (particularly within a defined sensor field); they typically utilize the Internet or some other network for long-haul delivery of information to a point (or points) of final data aggregation and analysis. In general, within the sensor field, WSNs employ contention-oriented random-access channel sharing and transmission techniques that are now incorporated in the IEEE 802 family of standards; indeed, these techniques were originally developed in the late 1960s and 1970s expressly for wireless (not cabled) environments and for large sets of dispersed nodes with limited channel-management intelligence . However, other channelmanagement techniques are also available.

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i want msword report on above topic
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Wireless sensor networks are currently an active field of research both in industry and academia. A sensor network is composed of a large number of nodes that are randomly dispersed over some area of interest. Not all nodes in a wireless network can communicate directly, so a multihop routing protocol is needed. Most routing protocols for wireless networks have been designed for networks of just a few hundreds of nodes and do not scale to networks with thousands of nodes.
Sensors integrated into structures, machinery, and the environment, coupled with the efficient delivery of sensed information, could provide tremendous benefits to society. Potential benefits include: fewer catastrophic failures, conservation of natural resources, improved manufacturing productivity, improved emergency response, and enhanced homeland security. However, barriers to the widespread use of sensors in structures and machines remain. Bundles of lead wires and fiber optic “tails” are subject to breakage and connector failures. Long wire bundles represent a significant installation and long term maintenance cost, limiting the number of sensors that may be deployed, and therefore reducing the overall quality of the data reported. Wireless sensing networks can eliminate these costs, easing installation and eliminating connectors.
The ideal wireless sensor is networked and scaleable, consumes very little power, is smart and software programmable, capable of fast data acquisition, reliable and accurate over the long term, costs little to purchase and install, and requires no real maintenance. Selecting the optimum sensors and wireless communications link requires knowledge of the application and problem definition. Battery life, sensor update rates, and size are all major design considerations. Examples of low data rate sensors include temperature, humidity, and peak strain captured passively. Examples of high data rate sensors include strain, acceleration, and vibration. Recent advances have resulted in the ability to integrate sensors, radio communications, and digital electronics into a single integrated circuit (IC) package. This capability is enabling networks of very low cost sensors that are able to communicate with each other using low power wireless data routing protocols.
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i want the complete seminar and presentation report of wireless sensor network
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go through the links given in this thread for more details:
topicideashow-to-wisenet-wireless-sensor-network-download-seminar and presentation-report
Use Search at http://topicideas.net/search.php wisely To Get Information About Project Topic and Seminar ideas with report/source code along pdf and ppt presenaion
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I am ashwin B N doing project and implimentation on Sensor networking. am from mechanical background, so can i have ur sensor networking project and implimentation report .If so my id
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Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors integrated into structures, machinery, and the environment, coupled with the effi cient deliveryof sensed information, could provide tremendous benefi ts to society. Potential benefi ts include: fewercatastrophic failures, conservation of natural resources, improved manufacturing productivity, improvedemergency response, and enhanced homeland security [1]. However, barriers to the widespreaduse of sensors in structures and machines remain. Bundles of lead wires and fi ber optic “tails” aresubject to breakage and connector failures. Long wire bundles represent a signifi cant installation andlong term maintenance cost, limiting the number of sensors that may be deployed, and therefore reducingthe overall quality of the data reported. Wireless sensing networks can eliminate these costs, easinginstallation and eliminating connectors.The ideal wireless sensor is networked and scaleable, consumes very little power, is smart and softwareprogrammable, capable of fast data acquisition, reliable and accurate over the long term, costs little topurchase and install, and requires no real maintenance.Selecting the optimum sensors and wireless communications link requires knowledge of theapplication and problem defi nition. Battery life, sensor update rates, and size are all major design considerations.Examples of low data rate sensors include temperature, humidity, and peak strain capturedpassively. Examples of high data rate sensors include strain, acceleration, and vibration.Recent advances have resulted in the ability to integrate sensors, radio communications, and digitalelectronics into a single integrated circuit (IC) package. This capability is enabling networks of verylow cost sensors that are able to communicate with each other using low power wireless data routingprotocols. A wireless sensor network (WSN) generally consists of a basestation (or “gateway”) thatcan communicate with a number of wireless sensors via a radio link. Data is collected at the wirelesssensor node, compressed, and transmitted to the gateway directly or, if required, uses other wirelesssensor nodes to forward data to the gateway. The transmitted data is then presented to the system by thegateway connection. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a brief technical introduction to wirelesssensor networks and present a few applications in which wireless sensor networks are enabling.
Individual Wireless Sensor Node Architecture
A functional block diagram of a versatile wireless sensing node is provided in Figure 22.2.1. Amodular design approach provides a fl exible and versatile platform to address the needs of a widevariety of applications [2]. For example, depending on the sensors to be deployed, the signal conditioningblock can be re-programmed or replaced. This allows for a wide variety of different sensors to beused with the wireless sensing node. Similarly, the radio link may be swapped out as required for agiven applications’ wireless range requirement and the need for bidirectional communications. Theuse of fl ash memory allows the remote nodes to acquire data on command from a basestation, or by anevent sensed by one or more inputs to the node. Furthermore, the embedded fi rmware can be upgradedthrough the wireless network in the fi eld.The microprocessor has a number of functions including:1) managing data collection from the sensors2) performing power management functions3) interfacing the sensor data to the physical radio layer4) managing the radio network protocolA key feature of any wireless sensing node is to minimize the power consumed by the system. Generally,the radio subsystem requires the largest amount of power. Therefore, it is advantageous to send dataover the radio network only when required. This sensor event-driven data collection model requires analgorithm to be loaded into the node to determine when to send data based on the sensed event. Additionally,it is important to minimize the power consumed by the sensor itself. Therefore, the hardwareshould be designed to allow the microprocessor to judiciously control power to the radio, sensor, andsensor signal conditioner.
Wireless Sensor Networks Architecture
There are a number of different topologies for radio communications networks. A brief discussion ofthe network topologies that apply to wireless sensor networks are outlined below.
Star Network (Single Point-to-Multipoint)
A star network (Figure 22.3.1) is a communications topology where a single basestation can sendand/or receive a message to a number of remote nodes. The remote nodes can only send or receive amessage from the single basestation, they are not permittedto send messages to each other. The advantage ofthis type of network for wireless sensor networks is inits simplicity and the ability to keep the remote node’spower consumption to a minimum. It also allows for lowlatency communications between the remote node andthe basestation. The disadvantage of such a network isthat the basestation must be within radio transmissionrange of all the individual nodes and is not as robust asother networks due to its dependency on a single node tomanage the network.
Mesh Network
A mesh network allows for any node in the network totransmit to any other node in the network that is withinits radio transmission range. This allows for what isknown as multihop communications; that is, if a nodewants to send a message to another node that is out of radiocommunications range, it can use an intermediate nodeto forward the message to the desired node. This networktopology has the advantage of redundancy and scalability.If an individual node fails, a remote node still can communicateto any other node in its range, which in turn, canforward the message to the desired location. In addition,the range of the network is not necessarily limited by therange in between single nodes, it can simply be extendedby adding more nodes to the system. The disadvantageof this type of network is in power consumption for thenodes that implement the multihop communications aregenerally higher than for the nodes that don’t have this capability,often limiting the battery life. Additionally, as thenumber of communication hops to a destination increases,the time to deliver the message also increases, especially iflow power operation of the nodes is a requirement

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Wireless Sensor Networks

A sensor network is composed of a large number of sensor nodes, which are densely deployed either inside the phenomenon or very close to it.
 Random deployment
 Cooperative capabilities
 Why Now?
Combination of:
 Breakthroughs in MEMS technology
 Development of low power radio technologies
 Advances in low-power embedded microcontrollers
 Sensor Networks: The Vision
 Push connectivity out of the PC and into the real world
 Billions of sensors and actuators EVERYWHERE!!!
 Zero configuration
 Build everything out of CMOS so that each device costs pennies
 Enable wild new sensing paradigms
Applications of Sensor networks
 Applications of sensor networks
Military applications
 Monitoring friendly forces, equipment and ammunition
 Reconnaissance of opposing forces and terrain
 Battlefield surveillance
 Battle damage assessment
 Nuclear, biological and chemical attack detection
 Applications of sensor networks
Environmental applications
 Forest fire detection
 Biocomplexity mapping of the environment
 Flood detection
 Precision agriculture
 Applications of sensor networks
Health applications
 Tele-monitoring of human physiological data
 Tracking and monitoring patients and doctors inside a hospital
 Drug administration in hospitals
 Applications of sensor networks
Home and other commercial applications
 Home automation and Smart environment
 Interactive museums
 Managing inventory control
 Vehicle tracking and detection
 Detecting and monitoring car thefts
 Some Other Interesting Applications
 Vehicle Tracking
Factors Influencing
Sensor Network Design

 Factors influencing sensor network design
 Factors influencing sensor network design
 Fault Tolerance
 Scalability
 Hardware Constrains
 Sensor Network Topology
 Environment
 Transmission Media
 Power Consumption
Communication architecture of sensor networks

 Applications of sensor networks
 Factors influencing sensor network design
 Communication architecture of sensor networks
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Overview of WSN
The sensor nodes, which have sensing, data processing, communication components forms the heart of the sensor networks. Wireless sensor networks were originally developed for military applications such as battlefield surveillance.
However WSN are now being used in many civilian application areas. A sensor node can be visualized as a small computer having basic interfaces and components. These devices are used to monitor physical or environmental conditions such as heat, temperature, or other events, at different locations. The size of the sensor node can be as small as a grain of dust and the cost can be as low as few cents.
A WSN consists of a large number of tiny, low power, cheap sensor nodes having sensing, data processing, communication components. It has not only the ability to sense some phenomena in the interested region but also the network features, thereby representing an improvement over the traditional sensor system.
Components of Sensor nodes
A sensor nodes consists of the following components
1. Processing unit with limited memory and processing power.
2. Sensors along with analog to digital converters for the data.
3. Transmitting device which is usually a radio
4. Power source in the form of a battery.
There can be more components which are optional and are included in a sensor node based on the target application. We will talk briefly on these optional components in the latter sections.
A sensor network consists of a number of sensor nodes having data sensing, data processing and transmission capabilities. The sensor nodes are characterized by small size, low-power, and low cost with communication capabilities over short distances. The communication rage varies from 10-15m. None of the existing algorithms or protocols is well suited to address the requirements of sensor networks.
Design factors
The different design aspects that need to be taken into consideration while designing architecture for a WSN application.
Power consumption/management
Power management techniques can greatly reduce the power consumed by sensor nodes. TDMA is usefull for power saving since a node can sleep between its assingned time slots and wake up only when its need to send or receive messages during its time slot. If a node fails, new routes need to be formed to address the topology changes. This might require more power and hence design of power aware algorithms becomes an important aspect.
Lifetime Maximization
Sensor node lifetime is highly dependent on the battery lifetime. A node might be left unattended for months or years. Hence, the maximum node lifetime needs to be considered before deployment of a sensor node
Fault tolerance
The failure of a sensor node should not affect the overall behavior of sensor network. Thus fault tolerance becomes an important aspects. The fault tolerance of a sensor node can be modeled using poisson distribution.
Self organization
A sensor network should self-organize itself once the different sensor nodes randomly distributed in a region wake up. Hence efficient MAC protocols and algorithms needs to be chosen to achieve self-organization.
The number of sensor nodes in a sensor network can grow to huge numbers. All the new algorithms and protocols developed need to work even when the number of sensor nodes increases.
The cost of a sensor node has to be kept very low and should be less than 1 dollar so that the sensor nodes could be deployed.
Network topology
The different network topologies are available are star, ring, bus, tree, fully connected and mesh network. The power consumed in a sensor network increases as the square of the distance between source and destination, it is recommended to use networks with multiple nodes like a mesh configuration.]
Sensor nodes can be deployed in a different geographical areas like in a home, on the top of a building, at the bottom of an ocean or in a military battlefield. The area in which the sensor node will be deployed needs to be considerd to make it more robust.
Transmission Media
The transmission medium could be radio, infrared or optical media. Most of the hardware for sensor node has RF circuitry. Infrared communication is robust to interference from other devices and also these transceivers are cheaper and easier to build.
Design of middleware primitives between hardware and software becomes an important aspects while designing architecture for sensor nodes, This mainly depends on the target application.
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05-05-2011, 10:58 AM

Smart environments represent the next evolutionary development step in building, utilities, industrial, home, shipboard, and transportation systems automation. Like any sentient organism, the smart environment relies first and foremost on sensory data from the real world. Sensory data comes from multiple sensors of different modalities in distributed locations. The smart environment needs information about its surroundings as well as about its internal workings; this is captured in biological systems by the distinction between exteroceptors and proprioceptors.
The challenges in the hierarchy of: detecting the relevant quantities, monitoring and collecting the data, assessing and evaluating the information, formulating meaningful user displays, and performing decision-making and alarm functions are enormous. The information needed by smart environments is provided by Distributed Wireless Sensor Networks, which are responsible for sensing as well as for the first stages of the processing hierarchy. The importance of sensor networks is highlighted by the number of recent funding initiatives, including the DARPA SENSIT program, military programs, and NSF Program Announcements.
The figure shows the complexity of wireless sensor networks, which generally consist of a data acquisition network and a data distribution network, monitored and controlled by a management center. The plethora of available technologies makes even the selection of
components difficult, let alone the design of a consistent, reliable, robust overall system.
The study of wireless sensor networks is challenging in that it requires an enormous breadth of knowledge from an enormous variety of disciplines. In this chapter we outline communication networks, wireless sensor networks and smart sensors, physical transduction principles, commercially available wireless sensor systems, self-organization, signal processing and decision-making, and finally some concepts for home automation.
The study of communication networks can encompass several years at the college or university level. To understand and be able to implement sensor networks, however, several basic primary concepts are sufficient.
2.2.1. Network Topology
The basic issue in communication networks is the transmission of messages to achieve a prescribed message throughput (Quantity of Service) and Quality of Service (QoS). QoS can be specified in terms of message delay, message due dates, bit error rates, packet loss, economic cost of transmission, transmission power, etc. Depending on QoS, the installation environment, economic considerations, and the application, one of several basic network topologies may be used.
A communication network is composed of nodes, each of which has computing power and can transmit and receive messages over communication links, wireless or cabled. The basic network topologies are shown in the figure and include fully connected, mesh, star, ring, tree, bus. A single network may consist of several interconnected subnets of different topologies. Networks are further classified as Local Area Networks (LAN), e.g. inside one building, or Wide Area Networks (WAN), e.g. between buildings.
Fully connected networks suffer from problems of NP-complexity [Garey 1979]; as additional nodes are added, the number of links increases exponentially. Therefore, for large networks, the routing problem is computationally intractable even with the availability of large amounts of computing power.
Mesh networks are regularly distributed networks that generally allow transmission only to a node’s nearest neighbors. The nodes in these networks are generally identical, so that mesh nets are also referred to as peer-to-peer (see below) nets. Mesh nets can be good models for large-scale networks of wireless sensors that are distributed over a geographic region, e.g. personnel or vehicle security surveillance systems. Note that the regular structure reflects the communications topology; the actual geographic distribution of the nodes need not be a regular mesh. Since there are generally multiple routing paths between nodes, these nets are robust to failure of individual nodes or links. An advantage of mesh nets is that, although all nodes may be identical and have the same computing and transmission capabilities, certain nodes can be designated as ‘group leaders’ that take on additional functions. If a group leader is disabled, another node can then take over these duties.
All nodes of the star topology are connected to a single hub node. The hub requires greater message handling, routing, and decision-making capabilities than the other nodes. If a communication link is cut, it only affects one node. However, if the hub is incapacitated the network is destroyed. In the ring topology all nodes perform the same function and there is no leader node.

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06-05-2011, 11:32 AM

We provide an in-depth study of applying wireless sensornetworks to real-world habitat monitoring. A set of systemdesign requirements are developed that cover the hardwaredesign of the nodes, the design of the sensor network, andthe capabilities for remote data access and management. Asystem architecture is proposed to address these requirementsfor habitat monitoring in general, and an instance ofthe architecture for monitoring seabird nesting environmentand behavior is presented. The currently deployed networkconsists of 32 nodes on a small island off the coast of Mainestreaming useful live data onto the web. The applicationdrivendesign exercise serves to identify important areas offurther work in data sampling, communications, network retasking,and health monitoring.
Categories and Subject Descriptors
C.2.1 [Computer Communication Networks]: NetworkArchitecture and Design; C.3 [Computer Systems Organization]:Special-Purpose and Application-based Systems;J.3 [Computer Applications]: Life and Medical Sciences
General TermsDesign, Performance, Experimentation
Habitat and environmental monitoring represent a classof sensor network applications with enormous potential benefitsfor scientific communities and society as a whole. Instrumentingnatural spaces with numerous networked microsensorscan enable long-term data collection at scales andresolutions that are difficult, if not impossible, to obtain otherwise.The intimate connection with its immediate physicalenvironment allows each sensor to provide localized measurementsand detailed information that is hard to obtainthrough traditional instrumentation. The integration of localprocessing and storage allows sensor nodes to perform .complex filtering and triggering functions, as well as to applyapplication-specific or sensor-specific data compression algorithms.The ability to communicate not only allows informationand control to be communicated across the network ofnodes, but nodes to cooperate in performing more complextasks, like statistical sampling, data aggregation, and systemhealth and status monitoring [8, 9]. Increased powerefficiency gives applications flexibility in resolving fundamentaldesign tradeoffs, e.g., between sampling rates andbattery lifetimes. Low-power radios with well-designed protocolstacks allow generalized communications among networknodes, rather than point-to-point telemetry. The computingand networking capabilities allow sensor networks tobe reprogrammed or retasked after deployment in the field.Nodes have the ability to adapt their operation over timein response to changes in the environment, the condition ofthe sensor network itself, or the scientific endeavor.We are working with members of the life science communityto make the potential of this emerging technology areality. Taking an application-driven approach quickly separatesactual problems from potential ones, and relevant issuesfrom irrelevant ones. The application context helps todifferentiate problems with simple, concrete solutions fromopen research areas. However, we seek to develop an effectivesensor network architecture for the domain, not just aparticular instance, so we must look for general solutions.Collaboration with scientists in other fields helps to definethe broader application space, as well as specific applicationrequirements, allows field testing of experimental systems,and offers objective evaluations of the technologies. Theimpact of sensor networks for habitat and environmentalmonitoring will be measured by their ability to enable newapplications and produce new results otherwise too difficultto realize.This paper develops a specific habitat monitoring application,that is largely representative of the domain. It presentsa collection of requirements, constraints and guidelines thatserve as a basis for a general sensor network architecture formany such applications. It describes the core componentsof the sensor network for this domain – the hardware andsensor platforms, the distinct networks involved, their interconnection,and the data management facilities. The designand implementation of the essential network services, includingpower management, communications, retasking andnode management, can be evaluated in this context.

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06-08-2011, 02:58 PM

Sensor networks offer a powerful combination of distributed sensing, computing and communication. They lend themselves to countless applications and, at the same time, offer numerous challenges due to their peculiarities, primarily the stringent energy constraints to which sensing nodes are typically subjected. The distinguishing traits of sensor networks have a direct impact on the hardware design of the nodes at at least four levels: power source, processor, communication hardware, and sensors. Various hardware platforms have already been designed to test the many ideas spawned by the research community and to implement applications to virtually all fields of science and technology. We are convinced that CAS will be able to provide a substantial contribution to the development of this exciting field.

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